TOPIC 5: WRITING USING APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE CONTENT AND STYLE ~ ENGLISH FORM 4
Composition refers to the combination of personal thoughts, feelings and emotions towards specific issue rather than simply conveying information.
TYPES OF COMPOSTION
- Narrative composition
- Expository composition
- Descriptive composition
- Argumentative composition or persuasive composition
- Creative writing
Narrative composition refers to the stories of different events. These stories may be personal, historical or fictional.
Basic elements of Narrative compositions
- Plot – it is the sequence of events or action in a story.
- Characters – refers to animate or inanimate things that perform certain roles in literature
- Setting – it is the time and place in which the events of narrative occur.
Steps in Writing Narrative compositions
1. Finding a story idea – a story idea come from everyday life experience, newspapers, magazines or books.
2. Developing characters – assign roles to the characters that relate to their physical descriptions, thoughts, personality traits, actions and reaction to one another.
3. Setting the scene – in setting the scene it includes information about time, place and historical period. Often setting will affect the way character act.
4. Communicating a theme – theme is a main idea of a story that the writer conveys through the narrative.
5. Choosing a point of view – it is the decision of the writer whether to use first person (I/We), second person (You) or third person (he/she/it/they) in the narration.
Expository composition refers to the piece of writing or story that gives directions, explain an ideas or terms, compare one thing to another and explain how to do something.
It is the report that shares your knowledge or ideas about a topic with the reader. The purpose of expository composition is to explain something to the reader or audience.
TYPES OF EXPOSITORY COMPOSITION
|Explanatory||It uses step by step organization to explain how something happens, works or is done. E.g. how to prepare an Oxygen in the laboratory.|
|Cause and Effect||It examines the causes or/and effects of a certain phenomenon. For example the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS, poverty, desertification etc.|
|Compare and contrast||This examines the similarities and differences of a certain phenomenon. For example compare and contrast weather and climate, animal and plant cell etc.|
|Definition||It explains a concept by listing its qualities and characteristics. For example define a cell, poverty, climate, metamorphic rocks, globalization etc.|
|Problem and solution||It explains the problems and proposes possible solutions. For example the problem may be HIV/AIDS, famine, environmental pollution etc.|
Steps of writing expository composition
- Find the topic you want to write about.
- Write your first draft
- Edit what you have written.
- Write your final draft.
Descriptive composition is the type of writing that describes about events, actions or phenomenon which existed or happened sometime in the past. It tells that a phenomenon is like by giving the details of the features or characteristics.
A writer can describe the colour, the size, qualities, feelings, smell, taste, sound, speed or age of someone or something. For example, one can write an essay describing the Kilimanjaro Mountain or Lake Victoria etc.
Argumentative/persuasive composition is the type of writing aimed at convincing, motivating, arguing or persuading readers to accept, change or take action on something or topic/subject in whatever form that might be.
For example, an essay can be written to persuade readers to join a certain political party or buy something or vote for a candidate etc.
Things to consider when writing persuasive composition
- Varied opinion about the topic – you must argue for a point and try to convince readers to support your opinion.
- Audience receptiveness – take into consideration your audience and their opinions as well as their age, education level, sex and problem they encounter when choosing topic.
- Sufficient evidence – provide sufficient evidences to support your arguments.
- Use inductive and deductive reasoning – inductive reasoning is the reasoning that proceeds logically from limited facts to a general conclusion (reasoning from specific aspect to general aspects) and deductive reasoning is the reasoning that the writer begins with general statement and then draws a specific conclusion.
Creative writing refers to the figurative use of language in more artistic way. Creative writing becomes more effective when one becomes capable of using literary devices and skills. Literary devices are tools which make a story or any piece of writing figurative.
Some of the literary devices which are used in most of the literary works include:
- Rhetorical questions
- Riddles etc.
Speech is a formal address delivered to an audience.
Parts of the speech
- Introduction. It is the opening part of your speech that need to be very attractive and to tell your audience what you want to talk about.
- Main body. It is the part at which you discuss the topic in details. When we discuss ideas in the main body we must:
- State our topic or answer.
- Give evidence, examples or quotation.
- Provide detailed explanation for your points (who, what, why, where, when and how).
- It is the closing part of presentation.
TYPES OF SPEECHES
- Impromptu speech/unscripted speech – it is informal tye of speech, not rehersed and doesn’t involve notes or prior planning.
- Extemporaneous speech – it is the type of speech that relies on an outline or notes, contains key word and phrases that reminds you of your ideas on the topic provided.
Strategies of speech making
- Prepare your speech some time before you present it.
- Think about the audience’s knowledge about the subject matter.
- Consider the size of your audience.
- Consider what your audience want to know.
- Consider personal interests of your audience.
- Determine the purpose of your presentation.
- Examine your knowledge.
- Show your feelings about the topic.
- Analyze the occasion.
- Maintain ethical standard.
- Avoid stereotype
During presentation of your speech do the following: –
- Show your confidence.
- Establish and maintain eye contact.
- Use gestures and movement.
- Use your notes as a guide.
- Use a clear and audible voice.
- Show your enthusiastic.
- Use an effective pause and posture.
IMPORTANT THINGS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN PREPARING FOR A SPEECH.
When writing a speech you should consider the following view points;
This includes light hearted remarks, not immediately relevant to the topic of the speech. They are usually made to establish good rapport (relationship) between the speaker and his audience. These light hearted remarks are preceded with a title and greetings. At this stage the speaker introduces the topic of his speech.
Under introduction the speaker is supposed to give salutation by starting from the most superior to downward. That mean that if it is a speech delivered at school the speaker may simply say;
This is the way of addressing the audience. When making salutation we normally start with the most superior people to downwards. Example, The headmaster, Second Master, Academic master, discipline master, heads of departments, teachers and students, ladies and gentlemen, Good morning.
Then, Make an introductory remark on the item you are going to speak about i.e. any background information on what you are going to speak. E.g. I am here in front of you in order to share/ to express my experience that I gain during my study tour in USA. Or to day our fellow form four students are celebrating for their graduation party….;
THE MAIN BODY
The main body of a speech is likely to be marked by a series of points, issues, problems or arguments organized in a logical sequence. The language is usually formal and matches the subject matter.
This is a part from summing up the contents of the speech. In this case the speaker needs to express best wishes at the end and give the word of thanks. Also if there is a reward it should be given at the end of speech.
Example of Speech
THE SPEECH BY MR. DADI HEMED, THE HEADMASTER OF MIVUMONI ISLAMIC SEMINARY DURING THE FIRST GRADUATION CEREMONY AT LAMADA APARTMENT CONFERENCE HALL, DAR ES SALAAM ON 06th MARCH 2018.
Hon Dr. Shukuru Kawambwa, Minister of Education and Vocational training,
Dr. Zawadi Simba, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education and Vocational training,
Regional and District education officers,
Chairman of Yang j – Education foundation,
Administration staff and students of Mivumoni Islamic seminary,
Ladies and Gentlemen, Good morning.
I feel so much honored to be granted this brilliant opportunity to speak before you for the first graduation of our school, Mivumoni Islamic Seminary. I am therefore very grateful to administration of the school for giving me this golden opportunity.
Ever since the establishment of Mivumoni Islamic Seminary in 2005, the school has through what I may call several advancements. The school started with only 30 students at the very beginning but thanks God the great that we were able to admit more students than before from year to year. Indeed, we are very grateful to the parents who trust us and give us the necessary support.
Mivumoni Islamic Seminary has been an outstanding Islamic school in terms of academic and discipline thus making a remarkable difference in the history of education in Tanzania. This has been so as a result of friendly ties (relationship) between teachers and parents.
Dear the Honorable Minister,
From the achievements attained by this school, May I kindly take this opportunity urging (asking) the Minister, Parents together will all the invited guests on this occasion to become our good ambassadors for our beloved school so as to foster academic excellence in Tanzania as for Mivumoni Islamic Seminary is where quality education lies.
I also kindly wish to remind our dear graduates that they still have a long live and let this stage be as a cornerstone for their success in life and I am very optimistic (hopeful) that future ministers, leaders, engineers and other professional will arise from these faces right here.
Dear Honorable Minister,
May I take this opportunity to congratulate our graduates and wishing them better results in their National examinations.
Thank you so much for your calm attention.
THE SPEECH BY MR. SUDI JUMA THE VILLAGE CHAIRMAN OF MTAKUJA VILLAGE ON THE IMPORTANCE OF SENSUS HELD ON 08th JANUARY 2018.
Thank you the distinguished guest of honor, the village executive officer, the village council of elders, the invited guests and all the villagers.
I feel honored as I stand on the altar of this platform this very evening, inwardly; I am overjoyed to see you attending this gathering in such a large number. I am also too much delighted to join with you in sharing some sorts of knowledge about the importance of census.
Dear fellow villagers, let me first begin by defining the concept of census. The term Census refers to an official account of a population carried out at set of intervals. There are so many reasons as to why our nation is obliged to conduct census for every ten years, some of the reasons are as follows.
Firstly, it is important for our nation to conduct census for every ten years in order to plan for the national budget. This is very true, because when the nation or the government conducts census, it will be in a very good position to know the number of people residing in the country, hence makes it easier to plan for the budget of the country, also to know which sector needs to be improved. Some of the sectors include healthy sectors, education sectors, and energy sectors to mention the notable ones.
Secondly, our beloved villagers, there is a great need for us to conduct census after every ten years so as to identify the population rate in the country. As we all know that, the process of conducting census involves counting the number of people in the country, it is from this process that we know the exact number of adult people, men, women and children. In addition to that, it enables us to know the number of both able bodied people and the disabled ones in the society.
Dear villagers the third importance which gives us the reason behind to conduct census is to understand the death rate in the country. Census helps us to know the number of death rate in the country. This is because during the census exercise, scientific researched data and statistics are provided by the qualified researchers who are closely connected in census and they provide full participation in providing mass education concerning the whole concept of census exercise.
My beloved villagers, another importance of our nation to conduct census after every ten years goes further in understanding the birth rate of the nation. It is very difficult for the people living in a certain nation to know the birth rate of the nation in question incase that nation does not see any importance in conducting census. Therefore, we are very much impressed to support census campaign as we need to get to know the exact data and statistics concerning birth rate so that the government may design initiative programs to solve the problems arise.
Last but not the least; census is very important for our socio-economic community development as it enables us to plan on how to provide the social services such as improvement of social services like schools, hospitals, construction of wells and improvement of physical infrastructures like roads, railways and water ways. When we do not have the tendency of conducting census, it will be like digging our own graves and that it will be a day dream to expect to experience community development.
With these few words, I hope you have well understood the concept of census and its importance in our community development. I would like to end up here; I have enjoyed being invited as the main speaker of the topic in question. I hope we shall meet again and again as this is not the end but just the beginning. Thanks for your active listening and good bye!!!
- Your fellow students have elected you Head-prefect. Write a speech you intend to give on the results of the election are going to be announced.
- Imagine that you are the executive officer of Kiganza Village. Write a speech of not more than 250 words you would deliver to educate your people on the importance of education in the society.
WRITING CURRICULUM VITAE (CV)
Curriculum vitae is the document that gives one’s life account in terms of education, date of birth and working experience. It is a brief account of a person’s education, qualifications, and previous occupations, typically sent with a job application letter.
STRUCTURE OF THE CV/COMPONENTS OF A CV
- Personal data. These personal data involve your name (in full), date of birth, your physical address, email address, telephone numbers and marital status.
- Education Qualification. It involves information about schools and colleges you attended, dates and degrees or certificates, Awards and honours you obtained. You start with the highest level.
- Work experience. In this section you list both your full time and part time jobs you have ever done. You start with the most recently jobs done.
- Other Skills. Here you tell what other skill you have. It includes things like computer application skills, driving skills, computer repair and maintenance, car maintenance etc.
- Interests/Hobbies. It is an optional part of the CV, you list the things that you like doing such as reading, jogging, music, swimming, football etc.
It is to do with people who know you and are willing to recommend you as a suitable person for the post being applied. Choose people who can give you a good comment.
Example of Curriculum Vitae
Other names: HASSANI SALIM
First name: FERUZI
Date of birth: 4TH AUGUST, 1986
Place of birth: MLOLA LUSHOTO-TANGA, TANZANIA
Language: KISWAHILI & ENGLISH
Marital status: SINGLE
Postal Address: P.O.BOX 173 LUSHOTO
E-mail address: Feruzi86@gmail.com/Feruzihassan@yahoo.com
Phone numbers: +25571002928/+255682615103
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AND QUALIFICATIONS
|YEAR||NAME OF INSTUTION/SCHOOL||AWARD|
|2010 to date||Pursuing Bachelor of Arts with Education at University of Dar e s salaam||Provision results(4 semesters)|
|2008 – 2010||Shambalai secondary school||Advanced Certificate of Secondary Education(ACSEE)|
|2004 – 2007||Mlongwema Secondary School||Certificate of Secondary Education(CSEE)|
|1997- 2003||Mboghoi primary school||A certificate of primary education|
- I have computer skills on Microsoft word, Microsoft excel and internet.
- I also have skills on entrepreneurship, Business and SME,s
CAREER AND LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES
|Name of organization||Work/position||from||to|
|Mlongwema secondary school.||A temporally employed teacher||1st march,2010||25th October,2010|
|Ubiri secondary school||A field teacher||1st jully,2011||23rd august,2011|
|Lushoto secondary school.||A field teacher||25th june,2012||17th august,2012|
|TAMSYA lushoto district.||A/chairman & treasurer||August 2008||September 2009|
|TAMSYA shambalai branch||chairman||June 2008||August 2009|
- Abasi Salumu Ndevu
The Academic Master,
Lugufu Boys High School,
Tel: +255 (0) 712 240 240
+255 (0) 753 240 240
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
- Tamim Billali Feruzi
Dar es salaam
Tel: +255 (0) 783 801 317
+255 (0) 767 250 890
- As you are now familiar with how CVs are written. From the CV sample you have seen, write your CV with all necessary information about you.