UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION (UNO)
United Nation (UN) is an organization of the world independent countries which was formed to promote and maintain International peace and security; It came after the failure of league of nation to maintain world peace and security as the results of the second world war in 1939 – 1945.
The charter of the formation of UN was originally drawn by the representative of 50 countries in San Francisco USA on 26th June 1945. But the representatives made the charter on the basis of the ideas and proposal given out by the delegates from China, USSR, U.K and USA in 1944, after its formation country like Poland immediately signed the charter and became one of the original founders of UN.
On 24th October 1945 is a time when the UN came into existence where the charter formerly approved by China, France, the Soviet Union (USSR), Britain (UK) and USA and other countries from the Lowest Developed Countries .Its headquarters to day is in New York.
OBJECTIVES OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Objectives of UN include the following:
Maintaining world peace and security
Encourage international cooperation in solving economic, social, political and humanitarian
To develop friendly relations among nations
Promote international respect for human nights and fundamental freedoms.
In order to attain the above objectives UN becomes a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.
THE STRUCTURE/ ORGANS OF THE UN
There are important organs through which UN performs its duties, such organs include the following.
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY
Represents all member states, all member states always have one vote regardless of size and powers. Decision on issues require two third of members vote. It has the following function
Discuss all mattes which endanger peace and security.
Recommends on the world peace ,security ,disarmament and regulation of armament
Elects non-permanent members of the security council and judges of International Court of justices which jointly work with the Security Council
This is an organ which its headquarters is in New York (USA).It is under the head of General Secretary who works with several civil servants. The General Secretary is appointed by General assembly being recommended by the Security Council. Since formation of UN these have been general secretaries, Trygve Le of Norway ( 1946 – 1952 ), Dag Hammarskjold of Sweden ( 1953 – 1961 ) U That of Myanmar ( Burma ) (1961- 1971 ), Kurt Waldheim of Austria from (1972 – 1981), Javier de Perez de Cuellar of Peru from ( 1982 – 1991),Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt ( 1992- 1996 ) ,Kofi Anan of ( Ghana) ,(1997 – 2008) ,Ban Ki Moon of South Korea( 2008 to the present).
The functions of the secretariat include
To administer peace keeping operations in many countries which have wars and conflicts.
To implement the decisions of General assembly and the Security Council.
To inform the world‘s communication media about the work of United
It mediates international disputes.
Interpretation of speech and, translation of documents into the UN’s official Language.
It draw annual budget of the UN.
THE SECURITY COUNCIL
An organ which makes decisions that bind all other UN members .Before 1963 the council had only eleven members of which six members were elected by the General assembly for a two years terms and there was also five permanent member’s .
After 1963 the number of members increased to fifteen including five permanent members such as Britain, USA, France, USSR and China and ten non – permanent members who continued to be elected for two years terms.
The UN Security Council has a veto vote in which all the decisions cannot be passed unless all five permanent members approve the decisions, when any permanent, member cast a “NO” Vote decision automatically get blocked .
This situation creates dissatisfaction among other members. Today they demand more enlargement of the permanent membership seat so as to include many countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America in deciding matter of the UN .They also recommend the elimination of veto vote which is used to defend the interests of few people.
The functions of UN Security Council are:
To maintain international peace and security in line with principles and purpose of the UN.
To formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armament.
Takes military actions against the aggressors.
Recommends the admission of new members.
Recommends the appointment of the Secretary General to the UN General Assembly.
To investigate any conflict or situation which can lead to International war
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC)
It is an organ which works through UN specialized agencies and other autonomous bodies in the UN system. It promotes high standard of living, economic and social development as well respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Several UN specialized agencies include the following:-
FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization, was founded in Quebec, Canada, on 16 October, 1945.
ILO – (International Labour Organization ) it was firstly formed under the treaty of Versailles in 1919 ,it allied with UN as a specialized agency to raise up the living standard of the Workers.
UNESCO – United Nations Education and Science Organization. Founded in December 1946.
WHO – The world Health Organization was founded on 7 April 1947 as autonomous organization to provide health for all People in the world.
UNHCR– The UN High commission for Refugees it was started in 1951 to assist people who are running their countries as a Refugees.
UNDP– The UN development program formed in (1965).
UNIDO -the UN Industrial Development Organization) formed in 1967 to promote industries.
GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, it was made in order to make developed World fixing lower tariffs and fair prices of product from developing Countries.
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
This is a court of 15 judges who are elected by the General assembly and recommended with Security Council it has Head quarters at the Hague Netherlands. It judges are elected for 9 years. The court normally deals with all matters of the UN Charter council. Interprets law, proceeding of International cases and observance of human rights.
It was an organ which was formed in 1945 to supervise the administration of the trust territories taken from the mandate status of the league of nation. The aims of the trusteeship council were to prepare the Trust territories such as Tanganyika, Rwanda, Burundi and Namibia for their self government and Independence.
The council was allowed to examine and discuss the reports from the administering authority on political social and economic progress of people in the territories.
The members of the council were all five permanent members of the Security Council such as China, France, Russia, United-Kingdom and United State of America. The council ended its duties on 1st November 1994 when many countries received their independence.
The role of UN in maintaining World peace and understanding
1. UN as an organ for maintaining peace and security has got several roles in the whole process but the central role includes:-
2. UN cooperates with other big powers to fix sanction to aggressor countries and leaders, the human right abusers and undemocratic government all over the World. For example, sanction was recently applied to the countries like Zimbabwe, Iran and North Korea.
3. UN takes military action against the aggressors for example military action has used in the country of Middle East like Afghanistan, Iraq just mention a few.
4. Sending the UN peace keeping force in the areas affected with political instability i.e. civil wars, coup de’tate, genocide and so forth. The UN peace keeping force were recently sent in DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo) and Lebanon, Afghanistan and Darfur.
5. UN provides humanitarian aid to victim of man and natural influences. These include things like flood, Earthquake; famine as it has occurred in the countries like USA (Katrina), Indonesia (Tsunami), China and Japan also has been ruined with earthquakes. Besides, famine has ruined the wellbeing of people in countries such as Somalia, Ethiopia and Sudan. UN has been able to provide assistance to the victims through its agencies such as UNHCR, WHO, and UNDP.
6. UN has been able to sponsor world environment meeting and coordinates all regulation which have been passed by UN members (countries). For example under UN the World environmental summit was convened at the Rio-de-Jeneiro (Brazil). Besides, it has been coordinating regulations suggested at various conventions’ mandates and protocols example, the Kyoto protocol (1997), Berlin mandate (1995) and Geneva’s Convention (1996). This ware coordinated under the UN conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).
7. UN engages in arbitration, reconciliation and negotiations. UN diplomats have called upon table negotiation in various places which have been affected with conflicts, for example, table negotiation was called in Kenya, Liberia and DRC.
8. UN has been a very important organ (power) in solving social-economic and political problem in different parts of the world. However, besides of effort being done by UN it is still burdened with reoccurrence of problems in the World which are in need of a strong army, finance and International community’s support.