Common Accidents at Home and School
Mention common accidents at home and school
An accident is something unexpected that may cause injury and sometimes lead to death. Accidents may be difficult to predict and prevent.
Below is a list of some common accidents at home and school:
- Bites e.g. snake bite, insect bite, scorpion bite and dog bite.
- Burns caused by hot liquids, cooking pot, lamps, hot food, steam, burning wood, charcoals and those caused by corrosive chemicals such as concentrated acids and strong alkalis.
- Falls, e.g. wall falls, tree falls, bed falling, etc.
- Cuts and scratches caused by knives, hoes, razor blades and other sharp objects.
- Choking caused by drinks, food or objects
- Electric shock due to unguarded electric outlets and lightning.
- Poisoning caused by taking chemicals and excessive intake of medicines.
- Foreign bodies in the eye, ear and nose
- Drowning which may occur in very small amount of water such as baths, ponds, pit latrines, wells and water tanks.
- Nose bleeding, bruises, suffocation, fainting etc.
A child crawling towards boiling water
Ways of Preventing Accidents at Home and School
Outline ways of preventing accidents at home and school
What do you understand by the term accident?
Answer the below
- Mention common accidents that can happen at home and school
- State the ways of preventing accidents
- How can you maintain peace and safety at home and school?
Ways of Maintain Safety at Home and School
Explain ways of maintain safety at home and school
Ways of preventing accidents at home and school include the following:
- Medicines and potential poisonous chemicals should be kept out of reach of children.
- Children should be monitored closely when playing.
- Sharp objects like broken bottles, razor blades and laboratory equipments should be well disposed of.
- Laboratory chemicals should be labelled and if possible appropriate warning signs should be indicated.
- One should not take medicine unless prescribed by the doctor.
- Bushes and tall grasses around the house should be cut to avoid harbouring snakes, bees and other dangerous animals.
- Students should observe and adhere to laboratory rules.
- Walls and trees that are at a risk of falling should be dismantled or cut down respectively.
- Flammable substances should be properly kept.
- Pits dug around the house should be buried. Pools should be drained if possible and all water storage containers should be properly covered.
- Avoid using charcoal to warm oneself during night when sleeping as continued inhalation of carbon monoxide from the charcoal may lead to death
- Burning candles should be put off when sleeping.
- Players should adhere to game rules.
- Laboratory doors should open outwards for easy exit in case of fire. Emergence door is also necessary for this case.
- Equipment like hoes, axes and knives should be properly kept
- Turn off all the gas taps after experiment.
Ways of maintaining peace and safety at home and school
- Avoid risk behaviours such as playing near deep ponds, playing with knives, alcoholism etc.
- Dangerous things such as drugs should be kept away from children’s reach
- Report any dangerous event that someone engages in.
- Be positive and supportive to each other.
- Social problems occurring at home or school should be solved keenly.
- One should be good to him/herself.
- Parents should give their children education on how to live and interact with others.
The Terms “Waste” and Waste Disposal
Explain the terms “Waste” and waste disposal
Waste can be defined as unwanted materials or substances that are left after you have used something. Waste materials or substances are unwanted because the good part of them has been removed or it is not used.
Types of Waste
Identify types of waste
According to physical state, wastes can be classified as;
- Solid wastes
- Sludge wastes
- Liquid wastes
- Gaseous wastes
Visit dumping sites and industrial areas. List and classify the various types of wastes observed
- By their physical states
- As hazardous and non- hazardous wastes
- As recycled and non-recycled wastes.
Basic Principle of Waste Disposal
Outline basic principle of waste disposal
Proper Ways of Disposing Waste
Demonstrate proper ways of disposing waste
Effects of Poor Waste Disposal
Explain effects of poor waste disposal
The following are some of the effects of poor waste disposal;
- Produce bad odors
- Ruin the areas appearance
- Decomposing wastes produce flammable gas called methane and this may result to explosion of the gas which may cause a loss of material property and human life.
- Rain water drains through refuse and carry harmful substances to nearby streams and water used for drinking which may later lead to eruption of diseases like cholera and may kill organisms found in water
- Poor disposal of clinical wastes on land fill site may encourage bacterial breeding leading to possible infections in the area
- Unregulated dumps where waste is burned in the open can cause smoke and foul smelling air.
- Burning may also result into production of air pollutants which may affect the ozone layer and possible cause of respiratory diseases.
Answer the below;
- Mention the four types of wastes according to their physical states.
- State the different ways through which wastes can be disposed
- Name two examples for each of the following
- Solid wastes
- Liquid wastes
- Gaseous wastes
- Hazardous wastes
- Non-hazardous wastes
- Recyclable wastes
- Non-recyclable wastes
What do you understand by the following terms?
The following are solid wastes except
- Oil spills
- Broken glassware
- Junked automobiles
Wastes which are in the form of liquid or watery materials are termed as
- Sludge wastes
- Liquid wastes
- Gaseous wastes
The act of getting rid of materials that are no longer needed in our environment is termed as
- Waste disposal
Garbage or refuse are alternative names for
- Liquid wastes
- Solid wastes
- Gaseous wastes
Method of waste disposal whereby waste is dumped into a trench, compacted and covered with earth is called
- Open dump
- Waste reduction
Write TRUE or FALSE for the following statements.
- Carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide are examples of gaseous wastes ______________
- One way of disposing wastes is by recycling ___________
- In the classrooms, wastes such as papers, pens and plastic materials should be thrown anywhere through the windows _________
- One of the problems of poor waste disposal is that it reduces spread of diseases _________________
- More than 80% of the liquid wastes contain water _________
Proper Ways of Disposing Waste in the Surrounding Community
Suggest proper ways of disposing waste in the surrounding community
Suggest other proper ways of disposing waste in the surrounding community
The Concepts of Health and Immunity
Explain the concepts of health and immunity
Health is a state of physical, mental and social wellbeing. It involves more than just the absence of disease. A truly health person not only feels good physically but also has a realistic outlook on life and gets along well with other people.
Types of Body Immunity and Their Importance
Mention types of body immunity and their importance
Immunity is the ability of the body to resist certain diseases and poisons.Immunity can also be defined as the ability of the body to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells and even abnormal cells such as cancer cells
The scientific study of immune system is called immunology.
Factors which Affects Body Immunity
State factors which affects body immunity
Factors which may lead to low of body immunity
- Alcohol and other toxic drugs.
- Lack of immunisation.
- Lack of proper balanced diet.
- Inability of the body to produce antibodies and white blood cells.
- Pathogens of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
Concepts of Personal Hygiene and Good Manners
Explain concepts of personal hygiene and good manners
Personal hygiene refers to individual cleanliness. It mirrors on how one takes care of oneself.
Good manners refer to acceptable person’s ways of behaving towards others.
Principle of Personal Hygiene and Good Manners
Outline principle of personal hygiene and good manners
Principles of personal hygiene
- Eating balanced diet regularly to maintain good health
- The body should be washed daily and hair combed regularly
- Teeth should be brushed after every meal
- The nails should be cut short
- Wear clean and ironed clothes
- Avoid risk behaviours like smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, prostitution and others
- Wash your hands with soap before and after meals and after visiting a lavatory
- Have enough sleep and rest.
- Take regular exercises to maintain fitness
- Underwears should be changed regularly
- Bedding should be changed regularly
Principles of good manners
- Respect – an individual should have good respect such as: showing great respect to elders by helping and greeting them decently; being polite and humble; and talking in a clear and calm voice.
- Tidiness – every body should look smart all the time. An individual should: keep the bedroom neat; brush shoes; wear clean and ironed clothes; cut nails and hairs short; comb or plait the hair nicely, etc.
- Discipline – an individual should be well disciplined e.g. avoid using bad language; cover, your mouth when sneezing, yawning or coughing; and portray good postures e.g. sitting properly in class and at home.
- Good eating habits (table manners) which include the following: Eating at regular time intervals; Avoid talking with food is in the mouth; Do not pile food up on your plate. Serve yourself with a reasonable amount while considering others; In case the food given is not good, make an excuse that you are not hungry or not feeling well rather than showing or saying that the food is not good; Don’t tell stories that will make others laugh when eating; Always wash your hands before and after eating
- Putting things in proper order: All objects in the surrounding should be kept properly and in a right place e.g.: Rubbish should be disposed as required; Books should be kept in shelves; Cooking and eating utensils should be kept well in the cupboards; Clothes should be properly ironed, folded and kept.
Requirements of Personal Hygiene and Good Manners
Mention requirements of personal hygiene and good manners
Requirements of personal hygiene and good manners include towel, soap, comb, brush, basin, toothbrush, a pair of scissors, razor blades, water and cosmetics.
Ways of Maintaining Proper Personal Hygiene During Puberty
Outline ways of maintaining proper personal hygiene during puberty
Puberty is the adolescent period. It is the period when one experiences physiological changes in the body. The physiological changes mark the beginning of adolescence.Puberty begins the age of 10 to 12 years for girls and 11 to 14 years for boys.
Ways of maintaining proper hygiene during puberty
- Both sexes should wash their bodies regularly
- During menstruation, girls should use good quality sanitary towels or pads and change them as necessary.
- Boys should undergo circumcision and females should avoid female genital mutilation
- Underwears should be washed and changed regularly
- Both boys and girls should avoid irresponsible sexual behaviours such as prostitution and rape so as to keep away from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
- Hair in the armpits or pubic areas should be shaved or trimmed.
The Importance of Personal Hygiene and Good Manners
Explain the importance of personal hygiene and good manners
Importance of personal hygiene and good manners include:
- Reduces chances of pathogen infection
- Enhances social acceptance in the society
- Prevents one from getting choked while eating
- Maintains natural body state
- Maintains personality of an individual in the society
- One becomes respected by others
- Maintains health of the body and mind
The Meaning of the Terms Infection and Disease
Explain the meaning of the terms infection and disease
Infection is the invasion of disease-causing micro-organisms into the body. Disease is the disturbance of the normal state of the body. It is a disordered state of an organ or organism. Infections normally lead to diseases.
Common Infections and Diseases
Mention common infections and diseases
Common Infections and Diseases include the following:
- TUBERCULOSIS (T.B)
- AMOEBIC DYSENTRY (AMOBIASIS)
- TRYPANOSOMIASIS (SLEEPING SICKNESS)
- BILHARZIA (SCHISTOSOMIASIS)
- ATHLETE’S FOOT
- GENITAL HERPES
- GENITAL WARTS
- HEPATITIS B
The Causes, Symptoms, Mode of Transmission and Effects of Common Infections and Diseases
Explain the causes, symptoms, mode of transmission and effects of common infections and diseases
Appropriate Preventive and Control Measures for Common Infections and Diseases
Suggest appropriate preventive and control measures for common infections and diseases
The Meaning of HIV/AIDs, STIs, and STDs
Explain the meaning of HIV/AIDs, STIs, and STDs
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and AIDS for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. It is thought that AIDS originated from central Africa. The HIV Virus which causes the disease appears to have migrated Via Haiti to the USA. The term acquired means become infected and immune deficiency means lack of immunity
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and venereal diseases (VDs), are infections that are commonly spread by sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Most STIs initially do not cause symptoms.
There are more than 30 different sexually transmissible bacteria, viruses and parasites. The most common STIs they cause are gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chancroid, genital herpes, genital warts, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and hepatitis B infection.
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases(STDs)
Causes, Symptoms, Mode and Transmission and Effects of HIV/AIDs, STIs and STDs
Explain causes, symptoms, mode and transmission and effects of HIV/AIDs, STIs and STDs
The Preventive and Control Measures of HIV/AIDs, STIs and STDs
Outline the preventive and control measures of HIV?AIDs, STIs and STDs
Management of STIs and HIV/AIDs
Ways of Avoiding Risky Situations, Risky Behaviours and Practices
Explain ways of avoiding risky situations, risky behaviours and practices
Risky behaviours can be avoided by:
- Practising safe sex
- Applying non- penetrative sex e.g. kissing, hugging, etc.
- Delaying technique e.g. I’m required at home just now lets meet tomorrow
- Discouraging/negative words e.g. I’m HIV positive
- Discouraging peer pressure
- Engaging in sports and games which distract one’s mind from concentrating to sex.
- Showing a sense of dislike to express the way you are by wearing T-shirts, caps with various messages e.g. ‘say no to sex’, ‘practice safe sex’, ‘Mimi nimepima wewe je?’, ‘AIDS kills’ etc
Necessary Skills for Avoiding Risky Behaviours, Practices and Situations
Demonstrate necessary skills for avoiding risky behaviours, practices and situations
So far there is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but treatment is available. However, the disease can be prevented by the following ways:
- Avoid sexual intercourse. It is possible to live a healthy normal life without having sexual intercourse.
- Use a condom correctly every time you have vaginal sex. It is often hard to be sure that your partner is truly faithful and unaffected.
- Avoid multiple partners. Don’t have more that one sexual partner.
- Avoid alcohol and drug abuse as they affect your decision making ability thus leading you to unsafe sex.
- Avoid sharing needles and other skin piercing tools. Needles can be contaminated and HIV can survive in a syringe for a month or longer.
- Avoid contracting other STIs because they increase the chances of HIV and AIDS infection. For those who have been infected, they must get proper treatment from a qualified medical practitioner.
- Avoid risky behaviours such as going to night clubs, negative peer pressure and taking alcohol or drug abuse. These might put you in danger of being infected.
- Prevent mother to child transmission by: (a) counselling and treating the mother; (b) using caesarean section as a mode of delivery; (c) use of alternative feeding (milk) instead of breastfeeding; and (d) not sharing breast milk.
- Prevent transmission through organ and tissue transplants by screening both the donor and the patient.
- Prevent minor injuries which might lead to infection. This can be achieved through:(a) use of gloves; (b) use of sterile instruments; (c) avoiding direct contact with contaminated body fluids;(d) proper handling of contaminated human waste; and (e) decontaminating soiled surfaces and lined.
- Effective treatment of the infected through: (a) administering anti-retroviral therapy; and (b) prompt treatment of opportunistic infections.
Care and Support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)
The Importance of Providing Care and Support to PLWHA in the Family Community and at School
Explain the importance of providing care and support to PLWHA in the family community and at school
Importance of care and support to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) include the following:
- It enables them to prolong their lives in case they are administered with ARVs.
- It reduces fear of death.
- It enables them to perform their daily activities without fear.
- It reduces depression and self dislike.
Necessary Care and Support Services Provided to PLWHA in the Family, Community and at School
Outline necessary care and support services provided to PLWHA in the family, community and at school
People who are infected with HIV need care and support form their friends, families and the community, especially when they are ill. Friends and family members sometimes worry that they might be infected when caring for a person with HIV.
HIV cannot be passed on by touching, hugging, coughing, or sharing eating utensils. It is possible for people who are infected with HIV to live long healthy lives. You can help those who are infected by:
- showing love, respect and support;
- knowing the facts about HIV/AIDS and talking openly about the disease;
- helping to reduce stress and stressful situations;
- helping to provide balanced and nutritious meals;
- seeking for support from family and friends as well as from other people who are HIV positive;
- encouraging them to live with hope;
- encouraging them to be active. Do not stop them from doing things they like;
- spend time with the sick person. For example help them to prepare their meals, clean their rooms, make their beds and take them to a walk if they can walk. Encourage family and friend to do this too;
- encouraging them to get treatment if they are sick. Most infections are easily treated and cured, even if a person is HIV positive.
- Cleaning their houses, utensils, clothes, etc.;
- trying to relieve any pain the person may be feeling, for example by administering pain killers; and
- treating them with respect and dignity making them as comfortable as possible.
Precautions to be taken when handling PLWHA and STIs
- There may be situations where you need to clean up body fluids or blood from someone infected with HIV. Do not touch body fluids such as blood, stool and urine with your bare hands. It is important to use rubber or plastic gloves or other barriers such as plastic bags or thick cloth to prevent direct contact. Make sure that you have these easily available at all times.
- Wash the gloves or plastic bags in hot water every time after you have used them. Keep clothes and bedding with blood, diarrhoea or body fluids away from other washings.
- Wash the bedding and clothes with soap. Hang them where there is a plenty of sunshine and air circulation to dry well.
- Do not share toothbrushes, razors, skin piecing instruments, or needles
- Cover your wounds with a clean and sterile bandage. Buy disposable gloves so that once used they are discarded.
- Dispose off properly the vomits or bandages used when dressing wounds.
- Learn about the ways HIV can and cannot be transmitted. Talk to your friends and family. Contact your local clinic for more information
The Effects of Discrimination and Stigma to People Living with HIV/AIDS to the Individual, Family and Society
Explain the effects of discrimination and stigma to people living with HIV/AIDS to the individual, family and society
HIV-related stigma and discrimination exist worldwide, although they manifest themselves differently across countries, communities, religious groups and individuals.
Possible consequences of HIV-related stigma could be:
- loss of income and livelihood
- loss of marriage and childbearing options
- poor care within the health sector
- withdrawal of caregiving in the home
- loss of hope and feelings of worthlessness
- loss of reputation