EVOLUTION OF MAN, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT
Evolution of Man Is the gradual changes development of plants and animals from a simple form to a -more complex form. This change leads to existence of plants and animals that are different from the -original plants and animals.
THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION OF MAN.
The theory of evolution tries to explain the origin of man by describing the changes that our ancestors underwent until they were like modern man. There are two theories, which attempt to explain the origin of man
1st THEORY OF CREATION. This theory explains that there is super natural power that creates everything. This super natural power is God. Refer from the Holy Bible and Qur’an e.g. from Biblical knowledge (Genesis chapter 1:26) it says that: –
God created man by using soil; at first, they created a man and then later a woman. These two creatures established their relationship and this marked the beginning of human family.
2nd THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION OF MAN:
an English man known as Charles Darwin (1809 –1882) proposed the theory of evolution of man. The theory says that: – man’s species has been changing gradually from lower stage to better stage due to environment.
Changing goes hand in hand with improvement of methods of obtaining food, cloth and shelter.
The gradual change of man is called evolution. The first man belongs to the family of primates that included Ape, Gorilla, Monkey and Chimpanzee.
These animals lived in the forest walking on four limbs and their bodies covered with hair. Because of environmental changes and diminishing of forests, they started to live in open grassland.
Environment forced them to adopt new way of walking. The forelimbs instead of walking become special for tool making and using. Forelimbs become free from walking. The walking is known as Bi –pedalism
STAGES OF MAN’S EVOLUTION
1. PRIMATES (Ape, Gorilla, Monkey, Chimpanzee)
– Their bodies were covered wit-h lots of hair.
– They walked on four limbs
– They lived in dense forest.- They had poorly mental abilities.
– They totally depended on nature e.g. ate raw food
2. AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFRICAN FAMILY.
This stage started about 12million years ago (B.C) when primates changed to near man. This stage is divided into two; Zinjanthropus and Homo habilis Zinjanthropus In this stage: 1. Fore limbs were free from walking. 2. Hind limbs were used for standing and body balance.
3. Man started to design, make and use tools. 4. Man becomes skillful.
Homo habilis – It lived between 1,500,000 and 750,000 BC. – Homohabilis become more skillful man, because was systematic tools maker. –
Homohabilis believed to be the direct ancestor of modern man. – He had bigger brain and he was more systematic toolmaker. – The skull of those creatures was discovered at Olduvai Gorge and in Eastern and Rudolf in Kenya. 3.
HOMO ERECTUS. During this stage, man was fully moving upright. He becomes more skillful tools maker than Homo habilis. Its fossils have been dug up in Olorgesaille and near Lake Turkana in the Kenya, Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.
4. HOMO SAPIENS its characteristics
• He is a true man of today
• Has a large brain in size
• Has less thick jaws
• He was highly skillful man
• He made tools by using stones and bones.
NB: Archaeologist Dr. Leakey in Olduvai Gorge has supported the theory of evolution in 1959
Basic characteristics of human evolution.
(i) Development of man’s ability to design make and use tools.
(ii) Ability of man to walk on two limbs. (Bi-pedalism) (iii) Ability of man to think. (iv) Ability of man to domesticate plants and animals.
5. HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS. Homo sapiens is a modern man. Homo sapiens are believed to have evolved into Homo sapiens sapiens about 50,000 years ago. This man has a large brain and great intelligence.
DEVELOPMENT OF STONE AGE.
Stone Age: This is historical period in which man made and used stone tools. Is a period based on man’s economic activities and type of the tools used. e.g., Stone Age, Iron Age, Science technology age etc. Stone Age is divided into three ages;
(a) Early or Old Stone Age.
(b) Middle Stone Age
(c) (c) Late or new Stone Age
THEEARLY OR OLD STONE AGE:
This is the first period of Stone Age. It existed between 1,750,000 B.C and 750,000 B.C.
Zinjanthropus was the only man existed in this period. The early stone tools were pebbles and chopping.
Man used these tools for killing and skinning animal flesh, digging up roots, cutting tree branches, and for defense. Man obtained his food by hunting and gathering. In this period, man had low ability to control his environment.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY OR OLD STONE AGE In East Africa Stone Age sites are found at Olorgasaille, Nsongezi and Olduvai.