Home ENGLISH LANGUAGE PLAY: THIS TIME TOMORROW LITERATURE FORM THREE

PLAY: THIS TIME TOMORROW LITERATURE FORM THREE

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THIS TIME TOMORROW

                 THIS TIME TOMORROW

PLAYWRIGHT: NGUGI WA THIONG’O

SETTING: UHURU MARKET IN KENYA AFTER

INDEPENDENCE

PUBLISHER: KENYA LITERATURE BUREAU

YEAR OF PUBLICATION: 1970

INTRODUCTION

The playwright portrays several issues that led to protest

which is the major theme of the play though there are

also other themes. The author shows that the colonial

legacy has been the source of different problems which

lead to dissatisfaction and later cause protest.

The colonial impacts are like land alienation,

introduction of new culture like dressing style of the

white people, establishment of town life associated with

so many social ,economic as well as environmental

problems. The people lived in classes such as few enjoy

the high living standard while the majority are starving or

living the poor life and the minority seems to be

neglecting the majority.

The playwright reveals how the majority struggle for

independence through the Mau Mau a movement that is

staged in the forest. The Mau Mau movement starts and

draws so many people into the forest to fight so as to

liberate Kenya and regain the land that has been taken

away by the white settlers. People like Dedan Kimath,

Njang’os husband and the shoe makers are examples of

some people who fought for independence in the forest.

For example the shoe maker says, “We were fighting for

freedom, we were fighting for our soil.”

The playwright also shows that some of freedom

fighters are arrested and sent to detention camps, like

the shoe maker. The shoe maker says”I was arrested

and sent to Monyani…. A concentration/detention camp.”

The stranger is also arrested and sent to a detention

camp who is shot dead.

Despite those expenses in the forest that involved arrest

and death of some people, the freedom fighters do not

give up. The fighters also expect to live a good life after

the independence.

LIFE AFTER INDEPENDENCE.

The freedom fighters had illusion/hopes that after

getting independence they should get jobs, good houses

and their land. After independence the new government

of our fellow black leaders betrays the masses/people

especially the freedom fighters.

The minorities (leaders) take the opportunity and begin

to enjoy the national cake (wealth). Those who have

been involved in the struggle for freedom, like the shoe

maker and the stranger, are left to suffer and hence

living a poor life.

The shoe maker is earning his living by repairing shoes

and stays in the slum. Also the families of the heroes

who died in the forest, like Njong’o and her daughter,

suffer terribly. They have decided to engage in petty

(small) business of selling soup so as to be able to

survive in the slums. The playwright goes on showing

the living conditions in the slums (shanty towns).

The people in the slums at Uhuru Market are in poor

conditions, the environment is filthy (dirty) and the

government has forgotten them despite the important

role played in fighting for Uhuru (this is a betrayal).

Bad enough, the government wants to demolish or

destroy their shanty/slums by saying that the place is

dirty and looks filthy in the eyes of the visitors (tourists)

who come from metropolitan countries.

Inspector Kiongo is heard saying,”By twelve o’clock today

these slums/shanty must be demolished. They are great

shame on our city. Tourist from America, Britain and

West German are disgusted.”

This is betrayal and humiliation since the government

has done nothing to help the majority and it has

abandoned them, leaving them suffering while they drive

expensive cars. Yet the government goes on with the

move to demolish the slums without showing them

where to go and settle. This is humiliation or

dehumanization of the highest level.

The shoe maker says “it is not that I don’t want to move,

but the government should give me the place to go.”

The playwright also shows that people in the slums keep

on drinking and fighting. The city is full of people who

cheat other people, especially young men, cheating girls,

abandoning them and later they throw them in the

trenches and live them to die like animals.

In the slums, there are informal activities like food

vending (Njongo is selling soup), making jembes and

pangas by Tinsmith and repairing of shoes as shown by

the shoe makers.

There are problems of unemployment and poor living

caused by poverty. Example Njongo and her daughter

are sharing the floor as bed. The slums/shanty are made

of poor material such as cardboards and rotting tins.

THIS TIME TOMORROW

PLAYWRIGHT: NGUGI WA THIONG’O

SETTING: UHURU MARKET IN KENYA AFTER

DEMOLITION OF THE SLUMS

Despite the protest staged by the slum dwellers the

government goes on with the plan to demolish the

shanty houses. It sends the police and bulldozers to pull

down the shanty houses at Uhuru market. Njango

laments (complains) in disillusionment (lack of hope) ,”

They are herding us out like cattle, where shall I go now?

Tonight? Where shall I be this time tomorrow?”

The government has shown brutality against the people

by implementing the discussion so fast without giving

time to people to organize themselves so that they can

move comfortably.

PLAY’S ANALYSIS

This Time Tomorrow is the play on the poor slum

dwellers of Uhuru market who fought for their

independence in both forests and detention camps with

the expectation of decent houses, jobs, land but nothing

seemed to change after that. The word “uhuru”

(independence) was doubted for them as many of the

natives were still poor, landless, and jobless. The upper

class is explained to enjoy life, secure employment, own

land as well as driving Mercedes Benz and long

American cars while the lower class is seen to suffer in

slums.

The play opens with an article of the journalist that

reports the way slums of poor dwellers came tumbling

down. Rotting tins flew high in the air, the card board

walls and the dry mud squeaked and crashed. It was like

the legendary wall of Jericho. The city council warriors

with their sickles, scythes and batons hacked left and

right. This was done through “Clean-the-city campaign”

THEMATIC ANALYSIS

1. BETRAYAL

It refers to an act which indicates a lack of loyalty to

somebody or something. Betrayal by the African leaders

appears to be the center of this play. The majority of

Kenyans decided to go to the forest to fight for freedom

of Kenya because they were promised by their leaders

that after independence they will have a good life, for

example good jobs and good houses, as well as the land

that had been taken away by the white settlers, but after

the attainment of UHURU the new government betrays

the people. For example one can see that the

government has left the people to live a very poor life in

slums without helping them. It is just the “chosen few”

who enjoys the national cake while the majorities are

living in miserable lives and they lack hope. For example

Njango’s shelter is made of poor constructive materials

that are cardboards and rotting tins. She is sharing the

floor with her daughter WANJIRO as bed. Also the crowd

betrayed the stranger by running away when they saw

the police. Moreover WANJIRO betrays her mother by

running away with ASINJO despite the protest from her

mother. EG WANJIRO tells her mother that she is going

away with ASINJO and that he is waiting for her.

2. HARRASSMENT

The term harassment refers to that behavior that

threatens or torments somebody, annoying, attacking or

bothering him or her especially persistently. The writer of

this play clearly shows a miserable life that the exfreedom

fighters together with their wives, daughters

and sons live at Uhuru Market. Despite all these

sufferings, the government wants to demolish their

slums on the reason that they are a great shame on their

city to the extent that tourists from America, Britain and

West Germany are disgusted with the dirt that is slowly

creeping into a city that used to be the pearl of Africa.

This is harassment in a sense that the government

wants the people to move away from their settlement

without showing them the other place to go. This is well

proved in the book when the Shoemaker answers the

journalist during the interview.“It is not that I don’t want to

move. But the government should give me a place to go.

After all, I deserve it. I was a member of the party-an

active member you might say. I took an oath in 1950… We

were fighting for freedom… I was arrested and sent to

Manyani”: (pg: 4).

3. TRUE LOVE

The term love can simply defined to mean the act to feel

romantic and sexual desire and longing for somebody.

There is an element of true love portrayed by the

playwright in this play. This concerns the two lovers

Asinjo and Wanjiro. In this book, it is clearly shown that

despite all the impossible conditions put forward by

Njango (Wanjiro’s mother) to Asinjo not to have

relationship with her daughter, Asinjo is determined to

fight for his love to Wanjiro despite the fact that they

come from different tribes. Also, the act of Wanjiro to go

away with Asinjo proves that she truly loves him.

Consider the following conversation: You can’t let an old

woman go on shutting you away from the good things of

life! When I used to come here, she drove me away with

her wild tongue. Said that I was jobless, that I was not of

your tribe. What does it matter? I have now got a good job,

and many girls want me. If I did not love you, would I have

come back after all the names your mother called? Would

I? (pg: 45).

4. PROTEST

The term Protest refers to an act of expressing strong

opposition to or disapproval of something in the form of

a public demonstration or other actionIn this play, the

slum dwellers use passive protest against humiliation

done by the government of Kenyan which had reached a

point of demolishing their slums. For example, the 1st

Customer is shown protesting against government

injustice by saying: “They cannot destroy our homes” Also

Njango is shown dissatisfied by the government iron

hands of demolishing their settlement. She thinks that

the government is not fair to carry out the Clean-the City

Campaign without giving them another place to dwell.

Njango’s protest is evidenced in the book when she talks

to her daughter, Wanjiro: “City Council or nor City Council.

I am not moving from this place….. This is not the old City

Council. But old or new, I am not pulling down my house,

do you hear?” (pg: 38).

5. ILLITERACY

The term illiteracy is the situation of having or showing

little or no knowledge of a particular subject. In this play

for instance, the playwright reveals the question of

illiteracy among the majority of the Kenyan citizens at

large particularly those who dwelt at Uhuru Market. Most

of the daughters, son and wives of the Kenyan real

freedom fighters had not been given an opportunity to

go to school to get formal education. Most of them fail

to know how to read and write and some of them do not

even know their ages. For example, when the journalist

interview Tinsmith and Shoemaker, both of them at

different times are shown to fail to tell their ages. Not

only that but also even when the City Council gave the

slum dwellers the notice about the demolition, people

had to ask the Stranger to write the City Council a letter

to ask him to give them a few months of grace. They had

to tell the stranger write the letter to the City Council just

because most of them could not read and write.

6. POVERTY

This refers to the state of not having enough money to

take care of basic needs such as food, clothing and

housing. It is to this where we see most of Kenyans

citizens live a miserable life due to the fact that they are

both forgotten and betrayed by their political leaders.

Most of the citizens are shown in this book to be

unemployed in regular jobs the situation which compels

the slum dwellers lives in extreme poverty. The Africans,

particularly political leaders are not concerned with the

welfare of the people rather; they consider their political

positions as an advantage of enriching themselves,

feeding their bellies and their families. For example at

the beginning of this play, the dawn light reveals the

inside of Njango’s shelter made of cardboard and rotting

tin. This wife of a freedom fighter (Njango) and her

daughter Wanjiro share the floor as a bed. As that is not

enough, another good example of poverty among

masses in this book is further proved when Wanjiro, the

daughter of a freedom fighter is heard complaining as

follows; “Look at me. I have no clothes like other girls. I

am now a woman. Yet no man dares glance in my

direction. Well, maybe once or twice, but only to ask: who

is that think in rags? Asinjo was different though. Used to

touch my breasts. He even said I was beautiful.”

7. SELF AWARENESS

The term awareness can be simply defined to mean that

state in which a person tends to have knowledge of

something including both its advantages and

advantages from having observed it or been told about

it. Some the characters in this play have been portrayed

to have some elements of self awareness on various

things that happening in their particular society. One of

the characters with self awareness is Asinjo (Wanjiro’s

boyfriend) who is aware that tribalism does not matter a

thing when it comes to love affairs. Apart from Asinjo,

another character portrayed to have self awareness is

Wanjiro who is aware that education is very much

important in life. This is well evidenced in our play during

conversation between Wanjiro and her mother, Njango,

Njango: You want to imitate the birds, do you, Wanjiro?

Remember birds don’t have to kill themselves in order to

live. And do they need money to buy food? No. do they

have to buy clothes and pay school fees for little brasts

like you and your brother? No.”

Wanjiro: “Mother, you mock me with your talk of clothes

and school. Where is my brother? You sent him to my

uncle in the country so that he might attend school. Me,

you kept here to work for you. Where are the clothes you

me? Look at other girls in this place. They wear clean

frocks on Saturday and Sunday. I am ashamed to walk in

the streets.” (pg: 35).

8. CONSERVATISM

This is the act of protesting change or new ideas.

Njango is conservative in the party, for example she

prevents her daughter from marrying a man from

another tribe. Wanjiro and Asinjo take her to be an old

woman who does not know the needs of a young

women in the modern time. This shows that Njango is

ignorant and hence conservative, as she does not

change with time and this is contributed by the fact that

she is old.

9. IGNORANCE

This means the lack of knowledge or information on a

certain thing. The problem of ignorance is seen when

some of the slum dwellers cannot read and write and

also cannot tell when they were born. For example the

shoe maker tells the journalist “I don’t know my

age.”Also the stranger gets a problems in making people

understand him when he tells them. “let us stand

together” Because of their ignorance they believe that

the stranger can perform his magic to save them. 1st

customer “Why don’t we held a meeting with the

stranger? He works in magic, will he not blind their

eyes?” 2nd customer, “yes the stranger’s magic save us”

this also shows ignorance because people believes the

stranger can prevent the government from destructing

their houses by using magic.

10. Land alienation

The poor slum dwellers are explained to be landless,

example in (Page 47), the stranger questions his fellow

slum dwellers about land, “We fought for the land but

where is the land?” The upper class forces poor people

like Njango who is a widow to leave her home without

showing her where to go. Her slum is finally demolished.

11. Poor living condition

The slum dwellers are shown to live in a place that is not

suitable for human life. The place is full of rotting tins

and card boards which are used as the materials for

building their slums. The stench of human urine (In page

34). Wanjiro and Njango share their floor as a bed, even

the soup sold symbolizes poor life ( bones, decaying

meat with white maggots)

Oppression

The upper class is shown to have cruel or unjust

exercise of power (authority). People are tortured in their

places. The police men with batons hit and force them to

leave their homes without any compensation.

12. Disunity among the slum dwellers in fighting for

their rights.

The term disunity refers to a lack of unity within a group,

especially one cause by a disagreement or a difference

of opinion. The question of disunity is well portrayed in

this book by the writer the stranger beseeches the slum

dwellers not to run and fight for their homes but the first

and second customers tell others to run away from the

police. The stranger is arrested for inciting the crowd to

violence and civil disobedience ( page 48).N The

playwright stresses the point that in order for any

struggle against injustice to succeed, the question of

unity among the members is very crucial

13. ILLUSION

Illusion is a false idea or belief about somebody or

something. For example, in the play, the freedom fighters

had illusion or expectation that after the attainment of

independence they would be given good jobs, houses

and their land. But it is not the way they have been

thinking. Things have become quite opposite to their

expectation. For example the stranger says “we fought

for UHURU because we were told it would mean decent

jobs and decent houses.” The expected situation is not

realized since after independence people have been

suffering, no jobs, no lands and even no good houses.

Another example of illusion is shown when people

believed that the stranger have the magic power to save

them while in reality it is not true. For example the 1st

customer says “why don’t we held a meeting with the

stranger? He works in magic. Will he not blind their

eyes?” but it was not true that the stranger worked in

magic but he was insisting on unity.

14. AWARENESS

Awareness refers to the state of knowing that something

exists and is important. Knowing about the situation and

it’s positive and negative impacts. For example,

someone can be aware of the importance of education,

effects of tribalism and the significance of unity in the

struggle. For example the stranger is aware that in any

struggle people should have strong determination, unity

and courage. For example he says “let us stand together,

let us with one voice tell the new government we want

our homes, we love them.”Asinjo is aware that tribalism

is a problem, it can bring problems in development or

changes. He knows that tribe is no longer a problem in

marriage. Njango also shows awareness on problems

that face women in town who takes decision like that of

Wanjiro of running aways with boys. Njango tells Wanjiro

“Have you not heard of a women left in the gutter?

Women stabbed and left to die in the streets?”

15. CONFLICT

Refers to the misunderstanding, clashes, quarrels

between people due to some differences in interests or

ideas. Conflicts can lead to disunity, enmity and

underdevelopment. It can also lead to positive changes,

such as it can change the nature of treatment that

people get in particular place by their government. In

“This Time Tomorrow” conflicts have been portrayed as

follows:

Intra-person conflict: This is the type of conflict that

normally occurs within or inside somebody’s mind. In

our play, Wanjiro is represented as one of the

characters who disturbed by intra-person conflict and

this is because she was not happy to live a poor kind

of life at Uhuru Market. Similarly, Njango is

represented by the playwright as the character with

intra-person conflict as she witnesses with her two

eyes that her shack is being pushed down by the

bulldozer, she did not know what to do and where to

go. So long as she had no more strength to defend

her own, the only thing she could manage doing in

time was just lamenting.

Political conflict: political conflict refers to the interpersonal

or inter-group conflicts in which members

of different political parties or different nations come

into serious misunderstanding over the political

affairs. In this book, the writer shows a serious

conflict between Kenyan freedom fighters against

the British colonialists. The Kenyan freedom fighters

fought for a number of years until finally attained

their lost freedom.

Family conflict: This is the type of conflict which

involves the family members only. In this play, the

playwright represents the family conflict between

Njango against her daughter Wanjiro. The source of

this conflict is that, Wanjiro thinks that her mother is

not fair to take her brother to school and at the same

time uses her as her servant and on top of that, the

mother is not buying her clothes like the other girls in

that place, when Wanjiro complains of this, a serious

debate between them arises.

Government vs. the citizens. This is represented in

the book between governments against the citizens.

The source of this conflict is dissatisfaction among

the citizens towards what they think that their

government has betrayed them. Since the attainment

of the independence, the government has not been

able to fulfill any of the promises to its citizens such

as descent jobs and good life in general which were

the leading slogans during liberation struggles

against the British colonialism. As if to add salt to the

wounds of the citizens, the government launches the

so called clean-city Campaign to demolish their

slums. As a result, people hold a meeting to protest

against government brutality but since the

government is acting more dictatorial than father, it

ends up arresting people like the Stranger.

THE ROLE AND THE POSITION OF WOMEN IN THE

SOCIETY

16.

This refers to both responsibilities and status of woman

in family in particular and in the society at large. A

woman is portrayed by the playwright in different

positions both positive and negative ones as follows;

Women as petty trader: The term petty trader

refers to a trader who engages in small

business. In this play, the playwright assigns this

position to the wife of Kenyan freedom fighter,

Njango. Njango is shown conducting petty trade

at Uhuru Market selling soup and some other

types of food-stuffs to the slum dwellers.

THIS TIME TOMORROW

PLAYWRIGHT: NGUGI WA THIONG’O

SETTING: UHURU MARKET IN KENYA AFTER

Women as aware: Awareness refers to the

situation in which a person is having knowledge

or perception of a certain fact or situation. In our

play, the playwright portrays wanjiro as a girl

having self awareness on the importance of

2.

1.

education in life. Wanjiro was a little bit envious

of her brother’s education due to the fact that he

has been sent to school while herself was not.

Woman as a poor man: A poor person is that

person who lacks sufficient money to live at a

standard considered comfortable or normal. In

other words, a poor person is the one that is

considered inferior to others of the same type or

group. In this book, many people are portrayed

by the writer to live in extreme poverty

particularly the slum dwellers at Uhuru Market. A

good example of a female character is Njango

whose shelter is shown to be made of cardboard

and rotting tin. As that is not enough, Njango and

her daughter Wanjiro share the floor as a bed.

3.

Woman as tribalism. Tribalism is a person with

behavior or attitudes that are based on being

loyal to a tribe or other social group. In this book,

Njango is the female character portrayed to be

very tribalist that is why she cannot see the

reason as to why her daughter (Wanjiro)

engaging in love relationship with a man called

Asinjo from another tribe.

4.

Woman as a humiliated person: A humiliated

person refers to the one whose dignity or pride is

damaged especially publicly.

5.

Most of women shown in this book are represented to

be the victims of male’s humiliation. For example they

are abused by men and called bad names. A good

example of this is the 2nd Customer who calls “the old

whore”. Not only that but also Njango is further publicly

humiliated when she witnesses her own hut being

pushed down by the bulldozer.

17. SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS

This refers to an irrational, but usually deep-seated belief

in the magical effects of a specific action or ritual,

especially in the likelihood that good or bad luck will

result from performing it. the slum dwellers are

explained to believe that the stranger has the magic

power to blind the eyes of people from the City Council

and defeat them. The stranger tries to educate them that

he does not work in magic, he does not have the power

of a witch doctor and the magic is unity for them to

stand together but some of the slum dwellers do not

agree to his idea.

18. CLASSES

The slum dwellers in the uhuru market are shown to be

in classes. In (page 46), the stranger says the so called

uhuru (independence) has brought people who love

driving Mercedes Benz and long American cars (upper

class) and those who starve in slums (lower class). In

(page 45), Asinjo tells Wanjiro that he knows every part

of the city, from Kolo where Europeans live to West lands

and Kabete where rich Africans have bought stone

houses. This shows that there are places for upper and

lower classes.

19. STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE

Slums dwellers are shown to fight for their

independence though things take a dramatic turn when

uhuru (independence) seems not to help them getting rid

of the previous problems. In (page 47), the stranger

says, “We fought for uhuru because we were told it

would mean decent houses! and decent jobs! But where

are the houses?” In (page 46) the stranger says, “I was

one of these who fought for uhuru in the forests and

detention camps. But what has uhuru brought us?”

Njango says her husband went to the forest, Dedan

Kimathi led them, he was captured and shot dead like a

dog, this gives an example of a class struggle for

independence.

20. TRIBALISM.

This refers to the behavior or attitudes that are based on

being loyal to a tribe or other social group. Njango

forbids her daughter not to marry Asinjo because of

coming from another tribe. In (page 49), Njango says,

“With that man, a man from another tribe. A man without

a job?” This shows that Njango is a tribalist woman.

FORM ANALYSIS

Title

Is the name given to a literary work. It can be direct or

indirect title. This Time Tomorrow is the direct title as it

shows a disappointed woman who is a widow (Njango)

whose slum is demolished and has nowhere to go. Her

husband was shot dead like a dog in the forest, she is

helpless, yet the City Council forces her to leave her

home without any compensation.

In (page 50), the woman cries, “They are herding us out

like cattle. Where shall I go now, tonight? Where shall I

be this time tomorrow?” Njango

presents the class of poor people (slum dwellers) in

Uhuru market who are poorly mistreated by the upper

class.

Setting

Means when and where (time and place) a literary work

was written. This Time Tomorrow was written in 1970.

The playwright has made the use of real setting, the

places named in this play do exist in the country of

Kenya example Kabete, Westlands, Uhuru, Kolo

(Kolobot).

Plot

Refers to how a literary work is arranged, it can be

chronological (straight forward plot) or nonchronological

plot. This Time Tomorrow has made the

use of non chronological plot, it starts from the end to

the beginning. The play opens with a journalist who

reads an article which explains things that are later

found in the end. The article explains about the rotting

tins flew high in the air, the cardboards and the dry mud

squeaked and the way slum dwellers have been swept

which makes the place to be as quiet as the Kalahari or

Sahara desert, a reader should finish reading in order to

understand what is said in the opening of this play. It is

therefore arranged non-chronologically.

Language use

Diction: Refers to the choice of words in a literary work.

The playwright has made the use of Swahili word

example “uhuru” which means independence. There is

also the choice words which are formal used in legal

language example “Civil Disobedience”

The uses of figures of speech example “simile” which is

the comparison of two things or persons by using

conjunctive words (like, as….as, resemble) In (page 39),

Njango says, “They shot him dead like a dog”. In (page

36), Njango says, “And such lips – as big as mountain”.

The use of personification where non-living things are

given human ability, example in (page35) Wanjiro says,

“The village is waking up” This is the use of

personification as the village does not have an ability to

wake up.

The use of hyperbolic language, in (page 36), Njango

says, “And such lips – as big as a mountain. So black –

blacker than the soot on the pot” In a normal

circumstance a human being can not have big lips like

those of mountains, it is beyond the reality. This is the

use of hyperbole.

The use of conversational language in a dialogue.

Njango is seen in dialogue with Wanjiro, the stranger and

customers, Asinjo with Wanjiro, the journalist and

shoemaker. The language has been used in form of

dialogue.

CHARACTERIZATION

CHARACTERIZATION

The following are the characters and characterization

housed under this time tomorrow.

NJANGO

She is the central character of the play who lives in

slums

She is a protagonist (hero) who fought during

liberation war

She is the mother of WANJIRO.

She is a widow, her husband died during liberation

struggle in the forest (MAU MAU movement).

She engages in petty (small business) thus she earns

her living by is selling soup at Uhuru Market

Her house is made of cardboards and shares the

floor with the daughter as a bed.

She is tribalism for example she is against inter tribe

marriages because she rejects Wanjiro from been

married to Asinjo on the ground of tribe.

She is abandoned by her daughter Wanjiro who

decides to elope with Asinjo and goes to live with him

in town leaving her mother alone.

She warns or advice Wanjiro to be careful with city

boys because majority of them are terrible makers.

This was when Asinjo tried to convince her to go with

him in Town.

She represents group of women who care for their

family despite hardship kind of life they have.

She is a daughter of a Kenyan freedom fighter and a

girl friend of Asinjo.

She is not happy with poor life she lives with her

mother at Uhuru Market especially sleeping on the

floor and selling soup while her father was a field

marshal. (war fighter).

She is naturally beautiful but not smart due to

poverty.

She has not been sent to school due to her brother

because he is sent to his uncle who appears to live in

town to attend school leaving Wanjiro helping her

mother in domestic activities like fetching water

sweeping and selling soup and the likes.

She loves ASINJO and wants to marry him but she

faces protest from her mother who does not support

the idea of been married to him.

She admires wearing like white people and walks like

European lady thus a westernized.

She finally goes to marry Asinjo despite the

impossible conditions posed by her mother.

She represents group of girls who are easily cheated

by men and who can’t take precaution especially on

the decision they made.

STRANGER

He is an activist who does not live in the slums.

He conscientious people about their rights and

makes people/slum dwellers become aware of

humiliation, exploitation and demolition of slums.

He is aware that in order to succeed, strong

determination, organized struggles and unity are

must.

He is courageous since he remained alone when

others ran away until is arrested by the police officer.

For making people to be involved in violence and civil

disobedience.

He was one of those who fought for Uhuru in the

forest and in the detention camps.

He is believed by many especially the slum dwellers

to work in magic.

He represents group of people who are ready to

endanger their life just for majority gain.

SHOE MAKER

He is a shoe maker at Uhuru Market mending a shoe

here and there among the slum dwellers to earn his

living.

He is real an active member of the party as he took

oath of loyalty in 1950 and fought for freedom in the

forest.

He later on arrested and taken (sent) to Manyani

concentration camp to join with other activists.

He is uneducated man who fails to recognize his age

Then is a tribalism man protest against the new

government’s decisions to demolish the slums

without giving people the place to go.

He represents group of people in our society who

keep on living terribly irrespective their vital role they

contributed in the society.

1st CUSTOMER

He is among the slum dwellers who buy soups at

Njango’s place.

He suggests that they should hold the meeting with

strangers so as to protest against the demolition of

their slums done by the government.

He believes in magic power and Thinks that the

stranger can perform his magic, thus he is a coward.

He tells the people at the meeting that the police are

coming and cautions them that they have batons

(guns) an incidence that caused people to fear and

then run away.

He represents group of people in our society who aim

at bringing just and development of the society.

2nd CUSTOMER

He buys soup at Njango’s place as well as one of the

residents of Uhuru Market.

He protest/complains about the price of soup to

Njango by using abusive language to her.

He believes that stranger has magic to save them,

therefore he supports the idea of meeting with him.

He is a coward, e.g. he tells others to run and he runs

away.

He also fails his friends at the meeting due to

disunity.

He represents people who live ordinary kind of life

but who also believe in the power of witch crafts.

3rd CUSTOMER

He is also a slum dweller and buys soup at Njango’s

place.

He also protests against slum demolition done by the

government.

He supports the stranger’s idea by asking his fellows

to stand firm during the meeting by not worrying

anything.

He represents people who are committed, self

determined in bringing development in their society.

INSPECTOR KIONG

He works with the city council Health department as

government official

He reminds people in UHURU market to move away

since the slums are going to be demolished in order

to implement the clean city campaign.

He is not among the slum dwellers.

He is among the few people who enjoy the National

cake, living a good life while in the early beginning, he

was a common man.

He helps in forcing the people to move from slums.

He drives Njango out of her hut out of her wish.

He represents people who harass others without

taking into account their humanity.

ASINJO

He is a young man from another tribe.

He loves Wanjiro and wants to marry her.

He was chased away and insulted and chased away

by Njango because she does not want him to marry

her daughter.

He was formerly unemployed but later on becomes a

tax-driver

He convinces Wanjiro to go away with him and ignore

her mother claiming she is old and ignorant.

He represents group of youth especially boys who

tend to bribe (cheat) girls by pretending even to those

things like wealth which they even possess.

TINSMITH

He is also a slim dweller who lives in poor life at the

Uhuru Market

He did many jobs in the past such as washing,

sweeping and cooking for the white people during

and after the war.

He is one those people who was driven out during the

emergency.

He once or twice slept in public latrines

He is illiterate to the extent that he is not sure of his

age, he came to the city but does not remember

when exactly

He has a terrible experience in his life that involved

sleeping in shop-verandas, trenches and in public

latrines as there was nowhere to lie down.

He represents people who are extremely tortured and

victimized by the system.

JOURNALIST:

He reports different events in the society like

Government’s decisions to demolish the slums,

people’s reaction against demolition of slums.

He is not among the slum dwellers.

He interviewed people during the demolition of slum

especially Tinsmith and Shoemaker to get their views

about clean-the city campaign.

POLICE OFFICER:

He is among the people in the civil services.

He arrests the stranger for making people to involve

in violence and civil disobedience, and he accused

him for insisting the crowd (people).

He is a cruel man who harasses people

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