THIS TIME TOMORROW
PLAYWRIGHT: NGUGI WA THIONG’O
SETTING: UHURU MARKET IN KENYA AFTER
PUBLISHER: KENYA LITERATURE BUREAU
YEAR OF PUBLICATION: 1970
The playwright portrays several issues that led to protest
which is the major theme of the play though there are
also other themes. The author shows that the colonial
legacy has been the source of different problems which
lead to dissatisfaction and later cause protest.
The colonial impacts are like land alienation,
introduction of new culture like dressing style of the
white people, establishment of town life associated with
so many social ,economic as well as environmental
problems. The people lived in classes such as few enjoy
the high living standard while the majority are starving or
living the poor life and the minority seems to be
neglecting the majority.
The playwright reveals how the majority struggle for
independence through the Mau Mau a movement that is
staged in the forest. The Mau Mau movement starts and
draws so many people into the forest to fight so as to
liberate Kenya and regain the land that has been taken
away by the white settlers. People like Dedan Kimath,
Njang’os husband and the shoe makers are examples of
some people who fought for independence in the forest.
For example the shoe maker says, “We were fighting for
freedom, we were fighting for our soil.”
The playwright also shows that some of freedom
fighters are arrested and sent to detention camps, like
the shoe maker. The shoe maker says”I was arrested
and sent to Monyani…. A concentration/detention camp.”
The stranger is also arrested and sent to a detention
camp who is shot dead.
Despite those expenses in the forest that involved arrest
and death of some people, the freedom fighters do not
give up. The fighters also expect to live a good life after
LIFE AFTER INDEPENDENCE.
The freedom fighters had illusion/hopes that after
getting independence they should get jobs, good houses
and their land. After independence the new government
of our fellow black leaders betrays the masses/people
especially the freedom fighters.
The minorities (leaders) take the opportunity and begin
to enjoy the national cake (wealth). Those who have
been involved in the struggle for freedom, like the shoe
maker and the stranger, are left to suffer and hence
living a poor life.
The shoe maker is earning his living by repairing shoes
and stays in the slum. Also the families of the heroes
who died in the forest, like Njong’o and her daughter,
suffer terribly. They have decided to engage in petty
(small) business of selling soup so as to be able to
survive in the slums. The playwright goes on showing
the living conditions in the slums (shanty towns).
The people in the slums at Uhuru Market are in poor
conditions, the environment is filthy (dirty) and the
government has forgotten them despite the important
role played in fighting for Uhuru (this is a betrayal).
Bad enough, the government wants to demolish or
destroy their shanty/slums by saying that the place is
dirty and looks filthy in the eyes of the visitors (tourists)
who come from metropolitan countries.
Inspector Kiongo is heard saying,”By twelve o’clock today
these slums/shanty must be demolished. They are great
shame on our city. Tourist from America, Britain and
West German are disgusted.”
This is betrayal and humiliation since the government
has done nothing to help the majority and it has
abandoned them, leaving them suffering while they drive
expensive cars. Yet the government goes on with the
move to demolish the slums without showing them
where to go and settle. This is humiliation or
dehumanization of the highest level.
The shoe maker says “it is not that I don’t want to move,
but the government should give me the place to go.”
The playwright also shows that people in the slums keep
on drinking and fighting. The city is full of people who
cheat other people, especially young men, cheating girls,
abandoning them and later they throw them in the
trenches and live them to die like animals.
In the slums, there are informal activities like food
vending (Njongo is selling soup), making jembes and
pangas by Tinsmith and repairing of shoes as shown by
the shoe makers.
There are problems of unemployment and poor living
caused by poverty. Example Njongo and her daughter
are sharing the floor as bed. The slums/shanty are made
of poor material such as cardboards and rotting tins.
THIS TIME TOMORROW
PLAYWRIGHT: NGUGI WA THIONG’O
SETTING: UHURU MARKET IN KENYA AFTER
DEMOLITION OF THE SLUMS
Despite the protest staged by the slum dwellers the
government goes on with the plan to demolish the
shanty houses. It sends the police and bulldozers to pull
down the shanty houses at Uhuru market. Njango
laments (complains) in disillusionment (lack of hope) ,”
They are herding us out like cattle, where shall I go now?
Tonight? Where shall I be this time tomorrow?”
The government has shown brutality against the people
by implementing the discussion so fast without giving
time to people to organize themselves so that they can
This Time Tomorrow is the play on the poor slum
dwellers of Uhuru market who fought for their
independence in both forests and detention camps with
the expectation of decent houses, jobs, land but nothing
seemed to change after that. The word “uhuru”
(independence) was doubted for them as many of the
natives were still poor, landless, and jobless. The upper
class is explained to enjoy life, secure employment, own
land as well as driving Mercedes Benz and long
American cars while the lower class is seen to suffer in
The play opens with an article of the journalist that
reports the way slums of poor dwellers came tumbling
down. Rotting tins flew high in the air, the card board
walls and the dry mud squeaked and crashed. It was like
the legendary wall of Jericho. The city council warriors
with their sickles, scythes and batons hacked left and
right. This was done through “Clean-the-city campaign”
It refers to an act which indicates a lack of loyalty to
somebody or something. Betrayal by the African leaders
appears to be the center of this play. The majority of
Kenyans decided to go to the forest to fight for freedom
of Kenya because they were promised by their leaders
that after independence they will have a good life, for
example good jobs and good houses, as well as the land
that had been taken away by the white settlers, but after
the attainment of UHURU the new government betrays
the people. For example one can see that the
government has left the people to live a very poor life in
slums without helping them. It is just the “chosen few”
who enjoys the national cake while the majorities are
living in miserable lives and they lack hope. For example
Njango’s shelter is made of poor constructive materials
that are cardboards and rotting tins. She is sharing the
floor with her daughter WANJIRO as bed. Also the crowd
betrayed the stranger by running away when they saw
the police. Moreover WANJIRO betrays her mother by
running away with ASINJO despite the protest from her
mother. EG WANJIRO tells her mother that she is going
away with ASINJO and that he is waiting for her.
The term harassment refers to that behavior that
threatens or torments somebody, annoying, attacking or
bothering him or her especially persistently. The writer of
this play clearly shows a miserable life that the exfreedom
fighters together with their wives, daughters
and sons live at Uhuru Market. Despite all these
sufferings, the government wants to demolish their
slums on the reason that they are a great shame on their
city to the extent that tourists from America, Britain and
West Germany are disgusted with the dirt that is slowly
creeping into a city that used to be the pearl of Africa.
This is harassment in a sense that the government
wants the people to move away from their settlement
without showing them the other place to go. This is well
proved in the book when the Shoemaker answers the
journalist during the interview.“It is not that I don’t want to
move. But the government should give me a place to go.
After all, I deserve it. I was a member of the party-an
active member you might say. I took an oath in 1950… We
were fighting for freedom… I was arrested and sent to
Manyani”: (pg: 4).
3. TRUE LOVE
The term love can simply defined to mean the act to feel
romantic and sexual desire and longing for somebody.
There is an element of true love portrayed by the
playwright in this play. This concerns the two lovers
Asinjo and Wanjiro. In this book, it is clearly shown that
despite all the impossible conditions put forward by
Njango (Wanjiro’s mother) to Asinjo not to have
relationship with her daughter, Asinjo is determined to
fight for his love to Wanjiro despite the fact that they
come from different tribes. Also, the act of Wanjiro to go
away with Asinjo proves that she truly loves him.
Consider the following conversation: You can’t let an old
woman go on shutting you away from the good things of
life! When I used to come here, she drove me away with
her wild tongue. Said that I was jobless, that I was not of
your tribe. What does it matter? I have now got a good job,
and many girls want me. If I did not love you, would I have
come back after all the names your mother called? Would
I? (pg: 45).
The term Protest refers to an act of expressing strong
opposition to or disapproval of something in the form of
a public demonstration or other actionIn this play, the
slum dwellers use passive protest against humiliation
done by the government of Kenyan which had reached a
point of demolishing their slums. For example, the 1st
Customer is shown protesting against government
injustice by saying: “They cannot destroy our homes” Also
Njango is shown dissatisfied by the government iron
hands of demolishing their settlement. She thinks that
the government is not fair to carry out the Clean-the City
Campaign without giving them another place to dwell.
Njango’s protest is evidenced in the book when she talks
to her daughter, Wanjiro: “City Council or nor City Council.
I am not moving from this place….. This is not the old City
Council. But old or new, I am not pulling down my house,
do you hear?” (pg: 38).
The term illiteracy is the situation of having or showing
little or no knowledge of a particular subject. In this play
for instance, the playwright reveals the question of
illiteracy among the majority of the Kenyan citizens at
large particularly those who dwelt at Uhuru Market. Most
of the daughters, son and wives of the Kenyan real
freedom fighters had not been given an opportunity to
go to school to get formal education. Most of them fail
to know how to read and write and some of them do not
even know their ages. For example, when the journalist
interview Tinsmith and Shoemaker, both of them at
different times are shown to fail to tell their ages. Not
only that but also even when the City Council gave the
slum dwellers the notice about the demolition, people
had to ask the Stranger to write the City Council a letter
to ask him to give them a few months of grace. They had
to tell the stranger write the letter to the City Council just
because most of them could not read and write.
This refers to the state of not having enough money to
take care of basic needs such as food, clothing and
housing. It is to this where we see most of Kenyans
citizens live a miserable life due to the fact that they are
both forgotten and betrayed by their political leaders.
Most of the citizens are shown in this book to be
unemployed in regular jobs the situation which compels
the slum dwellers lives in extreme poverty. The Africans,
particularly political leaders are not concerned with the
welfare of the people rather; they consider their political
positions as an advantage of enriching themselves,
feeding their bellies and their families. For example at
the beginning of this play, the dawn light reveals the
inside of Njango’s shelter made of cardboard and rotting
tin. This wife of a freedom fighter (Njango) and her
daughter Wanjiro share the floor as a bed. As that is not
enough, another good example of poverty among
masses in this book is further proved when Wanjiro, the
daughter of a freedom fighter is heard complaining as
follows; “Look at me. I have no clothes like other girls. I
am now a woman. Yet no man dares glance in my
direction. Well, maybe once or twice, but only to ask: who
is that think in rags? Asinjo was different though. Used to
touch my breasts. He even said I was beautiful.”
7. SELF AWARENESS
The term awareness can be simply defined to mean that
state in which a person tends to have knowledge of
something including both its advantages and
advantages from having observed it or been told about
it. Some the characters in this play have been portrayed
to have some elements of self awareness on various
things that happening in their particular society. One of
the characters with self awareness is Asinjo (Wanjiro’s
boyfriend) who is aware that tribalism does not matter a
thing when it comes to love affairs. Apart from Asinjo,
another character portrayed to have self awareness is
Wanjiro who is aware that education is very much
important in life. This is well evidenced in our play during
conversation between Wanjiro and her mother, Njango,
Njango: You want to imitate the birds, do you, Wanjiro?
Remember birds don’t have to kill themselves in order to
live. And do they need money to buy food? No. do they
have to buy clothes and pay school fees for little brasts
like you and your brother? No.”
Wanjiro: “Mother, you mock me with your talk of clothes
and school. Where is my brother? You sent him to my
uncle in the country so that he might attend school. Me,
you kept here to work for you. Where are the clothes you
me? Look at other girls in this place. They wear clean
frocks on Saturday and Sunday. I am ashamed to walk in
the streets.” (pg: 35).
This is the act of protesting change or new ideas.
Njango is conservative in the party, for example she
prevents her daughter from marrying a man from
another tribe. Wanjiro and Asinjo take her to be an old
woman who does not know the needs of a young
women in the modern time. This shows that Njango is
ignorant and hence conservative, as she does not
change with time and this is contributed by the fact that
she is old.
This means the lack of knowledge or information on a
certain thing. The problem of ignorance is seen when
some of the slum dwellers cannot read and write and
also cannot tell when they were born. For example the
shoe maker tells the journalist “I don’t know my
age.”Also the stranger gets a problems in making people
understand him when he tells them. “let us stand
together” Because of their ignorance they believe that
the stranger can perform his magic to save them. 1st
customer “Why don’t we held a meeting with the
stranger? He works in magic, will he not blind their
eyes?” 2nd customer, “yes the stranger’s magic save us”
this also shows ignorance because people believes the
stranger can prevent the government from destructing
their houses by using magic.
10. Land alienation
The poor slum dwellers are explained to be landless,
example in (Page 47), the stranger questions his fellow
slum dwellers about land, “We fought for the land but
where is the land?” The upper class forces poor people
like Njango who is a widow to leave her home without
showing her where to go. Her slum is finally demolished.
11. Poor living condition
The slum dwellers are shown to live in a place that is not
suitable for human life. The place is full of rotting tins
and card boards which are used as the materials for
building their slums. The stench of human urine (In page
34). Wanjiro and Njango share their floor as a bed, even
the soup sold symbolizes poor life ( bones, decaying
meat with white maggots)
The upper class is shown to have cruel or unjust
exercise of power (authority). People are tortured in their
places. The police men with batons hit and force them to
leave their homes without any compensation.
12. Disunity among the slum dwellers in fighting for
The term disunity refers to a lack of unity within a group,
especially one cause by a disagreement or a difference
of opinion. The question of disunity is well portrayed in
this book by the writer the stranger beseeches the slum
dwellers not to run and fight for their homes but the first
and second customers tell others to run away from the
police. The stranger is arrested for inciting the crowd to
violence and civil disobedience ( page 48).N The
playwright stresses the point that in order for any
struggle against injustice to succeed, the question of
unity among the members is very crucial
Illusion is a false idea or belief about somebody or
something. For example, in the play, the freedom fighters
had illusion or expectation that after the attainment of
independence they would be given good jobs, houses
and their land. But it is not the way they have been
thinking. Things have become quite opposite to their
expectation. For example the stranger says “we fought
for UHURU because we were told it would mean decent
jobs and decent houses.” The expected situation is not
realized since after independence people have been
suffering, no jobs, no lands and even no good houses.
Another example of illusion is shown when people
believed that the stranger have the magic power to save
them while in reality it is not true. For example the 1st
customer says “why don’t we held a meeting with the
stranger? He works in magic. Will he not blind their
eyes?” but it was not true that the stranger worked in
magic but he was insisting on unity.
Awareness refers to the state of knowing that something
exists and is important. Knowing about the situation and
it’s positive and negative impacts. For example,
someone can be aware of the importance of education,
effects of tribalism and the significance of unity in the
struggle. For example the stranger is aware that in any
struggle people should have strong determination, unity
and courage. For example he says “let us stand together,
let us with one voice tell the new government we want
our homes, we love them.”Asinjo is aware that tribalism
is a problem, it can bring problems in development or
changes. He knows that tribe is no longer a problem in
marriage. Njango also shows awareness on problems
that face women in town who takes decision like that of
Wanjiro of running aways with boys. Njango tells Wanjiro
“Have you not heard of a women left in the gutter?
Women stabbed and left to die in the streets?”
Refers to the misunderstanding, clashes, quarrels
between people due to some differences in interests or
ideas. Conflicts can lead to disunity, enmity and
underdevelopment. It can also lead to positive changes,
such as it can change the nature of treatment that
people get in particular place by their government. In
“This Time Tomorrow” conflicts have been portrayed as
Intra-person conflict: This is the type of conflict that
normally occurs within or inside somebody’s mind. In
our play, Wanjiro is represented as one of the
characters who disturbed by intra-person conflict and
this is because she was not happy to live a poor kind
of life at Uhuru Market. Similarly, Njango is
represented by the playwright as the character with
intra-person conflict as she witnesses with her two
eyes that her shack is being pushed down by the
bulldozer, she did not know what to do and where to
go. So long as she had no more strength to defend
her own, the only thing she could manage doing in
time was just lamenting.
Political conflict: political conflict refers to the interpersonal
or inter-group conflicts in which members
of different political parties or different nations come
into serious misunderstanding over the political
affairs. In this book, the writer shows a serious
conflict between Kenyan freedom fighters against
the British colonialists. The Kenyan freedom fighters
fought for a number of years until finally attained
their lost freedom.
Family conflict: This is the type of conflict which
involves the family members only. In this play, the
playwright represents the family conflict between
Njango against her daughter Wanjiro. The source of
this conflict is that, Wanjiro thinks that her mother is
not fair to take her brother to school and at the same
time uses her as her servant and on top of that, the
mother is not buying her clothes like the other girls in
that place, when Wanjiro complains of this, a serious
debate between them arises.
Government vs. the citizens. This is represented in
the book between governments against the citizens.
The source of this conflict is dissatisfaction among
the citizens towards what they think that their
government has betrayed them. Since the attainment
of the independence, the government has not been
able to fulfill any of the promises to its citizens such
as descent jobs and good life in general which were
the leading slogans during liberation struggles
against the British colonialism. As if to add salt to the
wounds of the citizens, the government launches the
so called clean-city Campaign to demolish their
slums. As a result, people hold a meeting to protest
against government brutality but since the
government is acting more dictatorial than father, it
ends up arresting people like the Stranger.
THE ROLE AND THE POSITION OF WOMEN IN THE
This refers to both responsibilities and status of woman
in family in particular and in the society at large. A
woman is portrayed by the playwright in different
positions both positive and negative ones as follows;
Women as petty trader: The term petty trader
refers to a trader who engages in small
business. In this play, the playwright assigns this
position to the wife of Kenyan freedom fighter,
Njango. Njango is shown conducting petty trade
at Uhuru Market selling soup and some other
types of food-stuffs to the slum dwellers.
THIS TIME TOMORROW
PLAYWRIGHT: NGUGI WA THIONG’O
SETTING: UHURU MARKET IN KENYA AFTER
Women as aware: Awareness refers to the
situation in which a person is having knowledge
or perception of a certain fact or situation. In our
play, the playwright portrays wanjiro as a girl
having self awareness on the importance of
education in life. Wanjiro was a little bit envious
of her brother’s education due to the fact that he
has been sent to school while herself was not.
Woman as a poor man: A poor person is that
person who lacks sufficient money to live at a
standard considered comfortable or normal. In
other words, a poor person is the one that is
considered inferior to others of the same type or
group. In this book, many people are portrayed
by the writer to live in extreme poverty
particularly the slum dwellers at Uhuru Market. A
good example of a female character is Njango
whose shelter is shown to be made of cardboard
and rotting tin. As that is not enough, Njango and
her daughter Wanjiro share the floor as a bed.
Woman as tribalism. Tribalism is a person with
behavior or attitudes that are based on being
loyal to a tribe or other social group. In this book,
Njango is the female character portrayed to be
very tribalist that is why she cannot see the
reason as to why her daughter (Wanjiro)
engaging in love relationship with a man called
Asinjo from another tribe.
Woman as a humiliated person: A humiliated
person refers to the one whose dignity or pride is
damaged especially publicly.
Most of women shown in this book are represented to
be the victims of male’s humiliation. For example they
are abused by men and called bad names. A good
example of this is the 2nd Customer who calls “the old
whore”. Not only that but also Njango is further publicly
humiliated when she witnesses her own hut being
pushed down by the bulldozer.
17. SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS
This refers to an irrational, but usually deep-seated belief
in the magical effects of a specific action or ritual,
especially in the likelihood that good or bad luck will
result from performing it. the slum dwellers are
explained to believe that the stranger has the magic
power to blind the eyes of people from the City Council
and defeat them. The stranger tries to educate them that
he does not work in magic, he does not have the power
of a witch doctor and the magic is unity for them to
stand together but some of the slum dwellers do not
agree to his idea.
The slum dwellers in the uhuru market are shown to be
in classes. In (page 46), the stranger says the so called
uhuru (independence) has brought people who love
driving Mercedes Benz and long American cars (upper
class) and those who starve in slums (lower class). In
(page 45), Asinjo tells Wanjiro that he knows every part
of the city, from Kolo where Europeans live to West lands
and Kabete where rich Africans have bought stone
houses. This shows that there are places for upper and
19. STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE
Slums dwellers are shown to fight for their
independence though things take a dramatic turn when
uhuru (independence) seems not to help them getting rid
of the previous problems. In (page 47), the stranger
says, “We fought for uhuru because we were told it
would mean decent houses! and decent jobs! But where
are the houses?” In (page 46) the stranger says, “I was
one of these who fought for uhuru in the forests and
detention camps. But what has uhuru brought us?”
Njango says her husband went to the forest, Dedan
Kimathi led them, he was captured and shot dead like a
dog, this gives an example of a class struggle for
This refers to the behavior or attitudes that are based on
being loyal to a tribe or other social group. Njango
forbids her daughter not to marry Asinjo because of
coming from another tribe. In (page 49), Njango says,
“With that man, a man from another tribe. A man without
a job?” This shows that Njango is a tribalist woman.
Is the name given to a literary work. It can be direct or
indirect title. This Time Tomorrow is the direct title as it
shows a disappointed woman who is a widow (Njango)
whose slum is demolished and has nowhere to go. Her
husband was shot dead like a dog in the forest, she is
helpless, yet the City Council forces her to leave her
home without any compensation.
In (page 50), the woman cries, “They are herding us out
like cattle. Where shall I go now, tonight? Where shall I
be this time tomorrow?” Njango
presents the class of poor people (slum dwellers) in
Uhuru market who are poorly mistreated by the upper
Means when and where (time and place) a literary work
was written. This Time Tomorrow was written in 1970.
The playwright has made the use of real setting, the
places named in this play do exist in the country of
Kenya example Kabete, Westlands, Uhuru, Kolo
Refers to how a literary work is arranged, it can be
chronological (straight forward plot) or nonchronological
plot. This Time Tomorrow has made the
use of non chronological plot, it starts from the end to
the beginning. The play opens with a journalist who
reads an article which explains things that are later
found in the end. The article explains about the rotting
tins flew high in the air, the cardboards and the dry mud
squeaked and the way slum dwellers have been swept
which makes the place to be as quiet as the Kalahari or
Sahara desert, a reader should finish reading in order to
understand what is said in the opening of this play. It is
therefore arranged non-chronologically.
Diction: Refers to the choice of words in a literary work.
The playwright has made the use of Swahili word
example “uhuru” which means independence. There is
also the choice words which are formal used in legal
language example “Civil Disobedience”
The uses of figures of speech example “simile” which is
the comparison of two things or persons by using
conjunctive words (like, as….as, resemble) In (page 39),
Njango says, “They shot him dead like a dog”. In (page
36), Njango says, “And such lips – as big as mountain”.
The use of personification where non-living things are
given human ability, example in (page35) Wanjiro says,
“The village is waking up” This is the use of
personification as the village does not have an ability to
The use of hyperbolic language, in (page 36), Njango
says, “And such lips – as big as a mountain. So black –
blacker than the soot on the pot” In a normal
circumstance a human being can not have big lips like
those of mountains, it is beyond the reality. This is the
use of hyperbole.
The use of conversational language in a dialogue.
Njango is seen in dialogue with Wanjiro, the stranger and
customers, Asinjo with Wanjiro, the journalist and
shoemaker. The language has been used in form of
The following are the characters and characterization
housed under this time tomorrow.
She is the central character of the play who lives in
She is a protagonist (hero) who fought during
She is the mother of WANJIRO.
She is a widow, her husband died during liberation
struggle in the forest (MAU MAU movement).
She engages in petty (small business) thus she earns
her living by is selling soup at Uhuru Market
Her house is made of cardboards and shares the
floor with the daughter as a bed.
She is tribalism for example she is against inter tribe
marriages because she rejects Wanjiro from been
married to Asinjo on the ground of tribe.
She is abandoned by her daughter Wanjiro who
decides to elope with Asinjo and goes to live with him
in town leaving her mother alone.
She warns or advice Wanjiro to be careful with city
boys because majority of them are terrible makers.
This was when Asinjo tried to convince her to go with
him in Town.
She represents group of women who care for their
family despite hardship kind of life they have.
She is a daughter of a Kenyan freedom fighter and a
girl friend of Asinjo.
She is not happy with poor life she lives with her
mother at Uhuru Market especially sleeping on the
floor and selling soup while her father was a field
marshal. (war fighter).
She is naturally beautiful but not smart due to
She has not been sent to school due to her brother
because he is sent to his uncle who appears to live in
town to attend school leaving Wanjiro helping her
mother in domestic activities like fetching water
sweeping and selling soup and the likes.
She loves ASINJO and wants to marry him but she
faces protest from her mother who does not support
the idea of been married to him.
She admires wearing like white people and walks like
European lady thus a westernized.
She finally goes to marry Asinjo despite the
impossible conditions posed by her mother.
She represents group of girls who are easily cheated
by men and who can’t take precaution especially on
the decision they made.
He is an activist who does not live in the slums.
He conscientious people about their rights and
makes people/slum dwellers become aware of
humiliation, exploitation and demolition of slums.
He is aware that in order to succeed, strong
determination, organized struggles and unity are
He is courageous since he remained alone when
others ran away until is arrested by the police officer.
For making people to be involved in violence and civil
He was one of those who fought for Uhuru in the
forest and in the detention camps.
He is believed by many especially the slum dwellers
to work in magic.
He represents group of people who are ready to
endanger their life just for majority gain.
He is a shoe maker at Uhuru Market mending a shoe
here and there among the slum dwellers to earn his
He is real an active member of the party as he took
oath of loyalty in 1950 and fought for freedom in the
He later on arrested and taken (sent) to Manyani
concentration camp to join with other activists.
He is uneducated man who fails to recognize his age
Then is a tribalism man protest against the new
government’s decisions to demolish the slums
without giving people the place to go.
He represents group of people in our society who
keep on living terribly irrespective their vital role they
contributed in the society.
He is among the slum dwellers who buy soups at
He suggests that they should hold the meeting with
strangers so as to protest against the demolition of
their slums done by the government.
He believes in magic power and Thinks that the
stranger can perform his magic, thus he is a coward.
He tells the people at the meeting that the police are
coming and cautions them that they have batons
(guns) an incidence that caused people to fear and
then run away.
He represents group of people in our society who aim
at bringing just and development of the society.
He buys soup at Njango’s place as well as one of the
residents of Uhuru Market.
He protest/complains about the price of soup to
Njango by using abusive language to her.
He believes that stranger has magic to save them,
therefore he supports the idea of meeting with him.
He is a coward, e.g. he tells others to run and he runs
He also fails his friends at the meeting due to
He represents people who live ordinary kind of life
but who also believe in the power of witch crafts.
He is also a slum dweller and buys soup at Njango’s
He also protests against slum demolition done by the
He supports the stranger’s idea by asking his fellows
to stand firm during the meeting by not worrying
He represents people who are committed, self
determined in bringing development in their society.
He works with the city council Health department as
He reminds people in UHURU market to move away
since the slums are going to be demolished in order
to implement the clean city campaign.
He is not among the slum dwellers.
He is among the few people who enjoy the National
cake, living a good life while in the early beginning, he
was a common man.
He helps in forcing the people to move from slums.
He drives Njango out of her hut out of her wish.
He represents people who harass others without
taking into account their humanity.
He is a young man from another tribe.
He loves Wanjiro and wants to marry her.
He was chased away and insulted and chased away
by Njango because she does not want him to marry
He was formerly unemployed but later on becomes a
He convinces Wanjiro to go away with him and ignore
her mother claiming she is old and ignorant.
He represents group of youth especially boys who
tend to bribe (cheat) girls by pretending even to those
things like wealth which they even possess.
He is also a slim dweller who lives in poor life at the
He did many jobs in the past such as washing,
sweeping and cooking for the white people during
and after the war.
He is one those people who was driven out during the
He once or twice slept in public latrines
He is illiterate to the extent that he is not sure of his
age, he came to the city but does not remember
He has a terrible experience in his life that involved
sleeping in shop-verandas, trenches and in public
latrines as there was nowhere to lie down.
He represents people who are extremely tortured and
victimized by the system.
He reports different events in the society like
Government’s decisions to demolish the slums,
people’s reaction against demolition of slums.
He is not among the slum dwellers.
He interviewed people during the demolition of slum
especially Tinsmith and Shoemaker to get their views
about clean-the city campaign.
He is among the people in the civil services.
He arrests the stranger for making people to involve
in violence and civil disobedience, and he accused
him for insisting the crowd (people).
He is a cruel man who harasses people