AUTHOR: Osman Conteh
SETTING: SIERRA LEONE
“Unanswered cries” is a modern novel where by the
author presenting a moving story of Olabisi who is under
pressure to be circumcised in order to realize the reality
as a woman.
COVER OF THE BOOK
The cover of the book is relevant to the story. This is
because it portrays the cultural dressing of the women in
Sierra Leone and Africa as whole. It also shows how the
girls discussed in the book are feeling by showing a fear
of oppression, sadness and loss of hope.
THE TITLE OF THE BOOK
The title of the book “unanswered cries” is direct as it
makes a person who wants to know the story of the girl
to get it so easily because it is shown on the cover as to
why she looks so sad, oppressed and hopeless.
ARRANGEMENT OF EVENTS
The writer arranged the events into chapters 1-9 whereby
each chapter contains a picture which gives information
about what is in that chapter.
Olabisi at home.
Olabisi is sitting washing the dishes when she hears the
sounds of drums and singing. She asks her mother for
permission to go and watch what’s happening but her
mother refuses. Later on after a long conversation her
mother agrees and Olabisi takes a camera with her to
take some photos/pictures. Makalay (Olabisi’s Mother)
stresses that Olabisi should be circumcised as well in
order to earn a respect and becomes a responsible
mother. She wonders how a girl can be circumcised
while she doesn’t have a penis. Her mother gives her a
sound slap believing that she has started sleeping with
boys. She calls her a gborka.
Olabisi Fights Salay and Rugiatu
Olabisi, Salay and Rugiatu (Ya Posseh’s daughters) are
on the way from the stream to fetch water. She curiously
asks Rugiatu whether she is a gborka. She is surprised to
see Rugiatu becoming angry and the two fight vigorously
and Salay joins in to help her sister. In the process
Rugiatu and Salay fall down and Olabisi starts to tear
their pants to see what they have between their legs,
which were circumcised. Suddenly Salay hits Olabisi
with a rock and she falls down unconscious. She later
quarrels with her mother on the same issue. Then Ya
Posseh arrives with a crowd of armed women
demanding Olabisi to be taken to bondo camp to
undergo female circumcision for what she did. Ya
Posseh threaten to do something bad to Makalay who is
pregnant. Olabisi overhears it and prepares to run away.
Her Step father Dauda and Makalay chase her but she
manages to push a bucket towards Dauda that sends
Olabisi in the forest
Olabisi enters a thick forest and goes through it hoping
to find a nearby village. She comes to a fenced hut and
begins going around looking for the entrance. As she
runs her footstep echoes and she thinks that an invisible
creature or Ya Posseh is chasing her. Before she finds
the entrance she hears the voices of women and climbs
up the tree to hide but she falls down. She climbs up
again and watches inside the fence. She realizes that it
is a bondo camp. The women are accompanied by a
young girl who is going to be circumcised. She tries to
run away but she is overpowered. She gives a loud cry
but it goes unanswered. Seeing this, Olabisi decides to
climb down only to find herself surrounded by Ya Posseh
and her two daughters welcoming her to the bondo
Makalay looks for Olabisi
Makalay dreams of Ya Posseh coming to punish her for
disobeying the gods. She decides to search for Olabisi
no matter the cost. Dauda comes back complaining for
what Olabisi did to him. Makalay leaves the house and
disappears into the bush looking for Olabisi. She meets
Pa Amadu (a hunter) and promises to give him a goat if
he finds Olabisi.
Back at the Bondo camp
Olabisi is still with Ya Posseh and her two daughters
who welcome her to the bondo camps. To free herself,
Olabisi fights the three of them and manages to
overpower them. She then runs away but unfortunately
comes to the river. On trying to cross the river she sees a
crocodile coming her way and runs back only to find
herself in the hands of Amadu- the hunter.
Olabisi arrives in Freetown
Ade Jones is in the house with Oyah (his new fiancée).
She wonders how she got on Ade’s bed while she had
just slept on the sitting room couch. They quarrel over
the matter of Ade Jones relationship with Yamide. But
Jones insists she’s only an ordinary friend. Oyah
determines to leave the house but is stopped at the
doorway by Jones’ questioning”will you marry me?… this
Suddenly a sound of someone running is heard and
Olabisi enters. She narrates what happened and was
about to happen to her. She then goes to the bathroom
to take a shower with Oyah supervising her. While in the
bathroom they hear a violent knock at the door. Makalay
comes in demanding to take Olabisi to the bondo camp.
After a long debate with Ade Jones Makalay says Olabisi
is not a legitimate daughter of Ade but Abdulraman. He
grips her throat and forces her to confess the lie until
she renounces her statement. Then Ade says he’s going
to take the matter to court.
Olabisi’s case is taken to court
Both Olabisi and her father feel nervous about appearing
in the court. His father helps her to rehearsal the words
used in court as taught to her by Oyah. Words like ;
‘objection’, ‘sustained’, ‘overruled’ etc. on the first day of
hearing the case bondo women appear in the streets of
Freetown in hundreds and thousands singing songs of
protest. They carry a banner with words:
“FEMALE CIRCUMCISION! A MOTHER’S DECISION!”
Olabisi, Oyah, Makalay, Salaam Sesay (Makalay’s lawyer)
judge Lansana Kanu and other spectators are all in the
court. Olabisi becomes the first witness to be called,
Oyah cross-examines her, she narrates what happened,
and then Mr. Sesay follows. Olabisi admits her
relationship with Edward Cole that they made love at age
of fourteen. Ade is called as the next witness he asks
the court to differ with Mrs Makalay Kamala. Then Mr
Sesay asks him a few questions and Ade stands for his
decision that Olabisi should not be circumcised. The
judge adjoins the court. Eddy appears to comfort Olabisi
but she tells him to stay away from her. She kicks him in
the shin. Then she runs off.
Obabis takes pregnant tests.
Olabisi is ashamed and asks for forgiveness from his
father. Oyah comes in and suggests that -Olabisi should
see a gynaecologist-(a doctor who treats women). Ade
is shocked but Oyah insists that Olabisi must take
pregnancy test. On hearing this, her stomach becomes
upset and she starts vomiting violently. On Monday, the
case continues. This time Dr. Asiatu Koroma is called as
a witness and explains the medical reasons why Olalibisi
should not undergo FGM. She even says her own
daughter is soon to die of HIV AIDS acquired during
Finally Ya Posseh the Digba sowey is called as a witness
on Makalay’s side. She also gives the history of bondo
tradition from the days of the ancestors. They
nicknamed it mama Africa. She then gives the benefits
to girls of going through the bondo ritual. She says it
teaches women to be committed in their marriage,
preparing women for their role as parents, the bondo
initiates are taught the skills needed to successfully
manage the household etc. Oyah then steps in to
question Ya Posseh. She asks Ya Posseh to justify her
claims since there are millions of good mothers who
handle all the women responsibilities and they never
went through bondo ritual and the fact that some girls
die in the process. Nevertheless, Ya posseh defends her
position by saying that death can attack someone at any
moment, so it does to bondo women.
The last witness to be called was Makalay. She gives
reasons why Olabisi should be circumcised, including
helping her to control her sexual desires, be taught how
to be a real woman and being beautifully dressed.
Oyah wonders how a college educated woman support
such a tradition based on medical ignorance and
superstition. She also challenges Makalay on how FGM
helped her because she was once a girlfriend to Ade
then to Dauda and was already circumcised.
When the questioning session was over, Judge Lansana
Kanu concluded that Olabisi Jones shall not be forced
against her will or the will of the father to undergo FGM.
Olabisi was happy for the decision. Three months later
Ade and Oyah were married.
The title of the book has dual meaning; in a more
specific sense it refers to the cry of many girls who are
forced by their parents to undergo FGM against their
wishes. Their cries are not answered because nobody
cares. Look at the following paragraph from page 29.
On a broader sense it may also imply the cry of the
whole traditional society in wanting all their girls to be
circumcised including Olabis but their cries are not
answered. They claim it up to the court demanding that
their cause is right and defend their position but
eventually the court judge gives a decision against them.
This is to say their cries were not answered.
She is the main character in the novel who is against bad
cultural practices (circumcision), she is courageous as
well as Eddy’s girl friend.
She’s Ade Jones and Makalay’s daughter. She almost
becomes a victim of traditional practices by being forced
by her own mother to undergo female genital mutilation.
She is engaged in premarital love affairs with Edward
Cole. She is a revolutionist who wants to see FGM
stopped since it is mostly done against the girls’ will.
She is aware of the dangers of FGM and thus protests
being circumcised according to bondo tradition. Her
experience of living in town make her believe that only
boys undergo circumcision so she wanders what in the
woman is being circumcised in the process. She
advocates for change in the society by tabling a dialogue
whether or not FGM is important for girls today.
This is Olabisi’s mother, an educated woman and a
school teacher. Despite her education she supports FGM
(female genital matulation) which she was supposed to
condemn with all her might. She represents those people
whose education has only helped them to solve their
financial problems and never the change in attitude. She
forces Olabisi to be circumcised because she fears the
bondo spirits. She is initially Ade’s girlfriend then she
gets married to Dauda. She believes that FGM helps to
reduce sexual appetite to girls and makes them
committed to their husbands, but fails to explain why
FGM failed to make her committed to Ade but she
moved again to Dauda. She is a very strict mother as she
treats Olabisi rudely to make her behave well. She
doesn’t want changes in the society so not worth being
3. Ya Posseh.
She is Salay and Rugiatu’s mother and girls’ circumciser.
She is believed to have powers even to speak with the
spirits. She is among the women who perpetuate FGM in
the name of ancestral tradition. Like Makalay she also
believes that FGM has a way of making girls real women
and creating a sense of commitment to their husbands.
She does not want changes in the society and thus not
worth being emulated.
4. Asiatu Koroma
She is a medical doctor by profession. (Gynecologist)
who examines Olabisi and proves that she is not
pregnant. She uses her education and position in a
positive way educating the people the effects of FGM.
She helps the court in reaching the decision of setting
Olabisi free from the traditional practices. She is aware
of the possible complications that can arise as a result
of going through FGM both immediate and long term.
She advocates change in the society.
She is professionally a lawyer and Ade Jones wife. She
uses her education positively by defending the rights of
women. She stands as an advocate in Olabisi’s case and
helps her to come out a winner and Makalay with her
Lawyers become losers. She is aware of Ade Jones
unfaithfulness in relationship and asks for more
commitment unless otherwise they should stop the
relationship. She represents women who are
revolutionists and in need of change in the society.
6. Ade Jones
This is Olabisi’s father married to Oyah. He also wants
changes and doesn’t want her daughter to be
circumcised against her will. He is a womanizer as we
are told he has five girlfriends apart from Oyah. He also
had Makalay with whom they bore Olabis. He has true
love for Olabisi and wants her to be happy by protecting
her from traditional influence.
7. Salaam Sesay
He is professionally a lawyer. He also represents people
who would do anything in the name of money. Although
he is educated and certainly knows the harmful effects
of FGM, nevertheless, he supports FGM to get money
from his clients. He is among the people who are a
stumbling block in the way leading to development
because to him what is important is money not humanity
or dignity even when he knows the effects.
8. Judge Kanu
He is professionally a lawyer who uses his position to
grant justice where it is due. He conducts Olabisi’s case
and makes a wise decision that Olabisi should not be
forced to undergo FGM against her will or the will of the
father. He is among the people who fight for the
oppressed. He is also after changes.
9. Edward Cole
The boy friend of Olabisi, he betrays Olabisi in the court.
He turns out to be Olabisi’s enemy.
10. Dauda Kamara
Makalay’s husband in Bondo society. He runs after
Olabisi to save his unborn child as the spirits want
Olabisi to be circumcised but he fails.
The novel is set in Sirra Leone. Although scanning
through the themes one can realize that the setting in a
more general sense represents African communities
where FGM is common.
Moreover, to drive the message home the author has
employed (rural) village and urban (town) setting.
The village setting includes the following sub-settings
Home; Olabis always quarrels with her mom at home
based on their disagreement on the issue of FGM
Bondo camps; we are also introduced to the practices at
the bondo camp and what is going on there.
Forest; we also see a large forest where hunting is
taking place. Hunting is typical feature of rural setting.
Additionally, drawing water from the stream sums up the
Urban setting in Freetown is also portrayed with the
following sub settings.
Home the urban home is different from the rural one. For
example we are told that Olabis went to take a shower in
the bathroom. ‘Exactly, Olabis turned on the shower’ pg
45. This is common in town
Courtroom. We are also introduced to courtroom setting
and how the case proceedings take place. Most courts
are in town.
Streets in Freetown. Bondo women are seen all over in
streets of Freetown.
The novel is rich in its style. The novelist has employed
the straightforward narration. We are told of Olabis in the
village, and the experience there, then forced to undergo
FGM runs back to town then to court. In the middle there
are cases of flashbacks like when Olabis narrates what
happened to her and when Ya Posseh narrates the
history of FGM. The story is told using a narrative
technique. But also there are cases of dialogue
especially in the courtroom.
1. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM).
Female Genital Mutilation is the removal of a woman’s
genitals usually the sensitive part known as clitoris, this
is done to inhibit sexual desires. The book revolves
around a mothers’ desire to get her daughter
circumcised, we see an age old institution (Bondo Secret
Society) established just to perpetrate this practice. Yah
Posseh sits pretty on top as the high priestess (chief
circumciser) a job she performs with great zeal and
We further see other characters such as Makalaay, Yah
Posseh, Oyah, Rugiatu and Sallay who have all faced the
knife sometimes in the past. Membership of the Bondo
secret society is an exclusive affair only achievable
through circumcision. The group of six young naked girls
in the Bondo Secret Society’s dance procession are all
being led away to be circumcised.. This practice is
prevalent in Africa, in Tanzania it is widely practiced in
the lake zone regions, Singida, Tanga, Dodoma etc.
Is defined as the belief or faith in magic or supernatural
powers that cannot be explained by logic. This theme
manifests itself through Makalaay who’s terrified of the
spirits; she believes the spirits would make her
experience difficult childbirth if she doesn’t obey them
by offering her daughter for circumcision Yah Posseh
also believes in the spirits and apparently acts as their
messenger, for instance she tells Olabisi ‘’the spirits
wants you circumcised’’ pg 35.
Also the hunter Pa Amadu wears an amulet on his left
arm designed to make him invincible to wild animals.
Amulet is a piece of cloth worn around the neck or arm
believed to offer protection
When one fails to act in discretion or accountably, they
are said to be irresponsible. Ade Jones is a father to a
teenage girl now that comes with a lot of
responsibilities. As a father he’s supposed to be a role
model to his daughter, model her to be a responsible and
personable girl and counsel her whenever necessary.
However our dear Ade failed miserably on that front
because he employed a laisser-faire approach instead of
a hands-on methodology in exercising his parental
duties. This gives Bisi a lot of freedom which she
inevitably misuses. If he were a responsible parent
maybe he could have salvaged the whole situation from
the onset hence avoiding the embarrassing debacle in
4. PRE- MARITAL SEX
Girls are seen to involve themselves in sexual affairs
before turning to the age of eighteen. Makalay is
circumcised while she is ten years old. She starts having
sex at the age of fourteen and becomes pregnant at the
age of sixteen. The same thing is shown to Olabisi who
involves in sexual affairs with Edward Cole while she is
The city dwellers example Oyah, Dr. Asiatu Koroma and
Olab isi are shown to go against Female Genital
Mutilation (FGM) while the village dwellers example Yah
Posseh, Makalay and other Bondo women are there to
support it. They want to preserve the traditional
practices of their spirits by going through Female Genital
Mutilation (FGM). This makes Olabisi to escape from her
Some of the characters have been shown to have many
sexual relationships. Example Ade Jones who lives with
Oyah without marrying her, he is accused of having five
girl friends by Makay’s lawyers (Salaam Sesay) while in
the court. He is also seen to be in conflicts with Oyah
because of Yamide.
This is the act of being disloyal to someone who trusts
you. In the novel, the situation is experienced by Makalay
when she is betrayed by Pah Amadu and he did not bring
Olabisi back to Makalay, instead he helped Olabisi to
reach the town. Also the betrayal of Edward Cole to
Olabisi by disclosing the secret that he had sex with her
7. FAMILY SEPARATION
Makalay is shown stay away from her husband (Ade
Jones) and stays with another man in the village called
Dauda Kamara. This causes problems to Olabisi who
finds herself in difficult situation.
Awareness refers to the state of knowing or realizing
something including its advantages and disadvantages.
Awareness has been revealed in different scenarios.
First Olabisi is aware of the harmful effects of
undergoing FGM and her rights of decision making thus
she protests to go through the process. Dr. Asiatu and
Oyah are also aware of the medical complications and
potential dangers that come along with FGM thus they
help to prevent Olabisi to undergo FGM. Ade Jones is
aware of her child’s right to decide whether or not she
should undergo FGM.
9. HUMILIATION and OPPRESSION
There are many cases that show humiliation to women
in this novel. But generally the act of forcing young girls
to be circumcised against their will is itself humiliation.
Most girls are taken to bondo camps at the age when
they are unable to defend themselves. Olabis narrates
how she saw a girl trying to escape for her safety but
was overpowered by older women who held her
screaming but her cries went unanswered. Also Olabis is
humiliated by her mother for examining her secret parts
when she is unconscious and discovers that she has lost
10. LOVE AFFAIRS
Love is a mutual feeling of attraction between two
people usually a male and a female. Male and female
relationships are a common occurrence in the book.
There’s a relationship between Ade and Oyah. Olabisi’s
relationship with Eddy also stands out prominently in the
Stigma is defined as the sign of disgrace which sets a
person from other ‘normal’ members of the 10. Society.
In the book uncircumcised girls are considered lesser
beings only fit for village riffraffs. They are abused,
disrespected, looked down upon and generally
disregarded, heck, they can’t even get married. A Gborka
is an outcast in the eyes of these villagers.
12. POSITION OF A WOMAN IN THE SOCIETY
In this novel, a woman is portrayed in different position
A woman is portrayed as an educated person,
example Oyah who is the lawyer, Dr. Asiatu Koroma
who is the gynecologist. They both stand strongly to
make sure that Olabisi is not circumcised.
A woman is portrayed as a leader, example Yah
Posseh who leads the villagers of Bondo society.She
is the chief female circumciser.
A woman is shown to be as a conservative person.
Women of Bondo do not want to change to practice
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) despite the bad
effects of it like excessive bleeding, transmission of
HIV/AIDS and death.
A woman is shown to be a liar, example Makalay
cheats on Ade Joneswith another man. He makes
him believing that Olabisi is his daughter while she
slept with another man called Abdulraman who is
said to be the biological father of her daughter.
Women have been portrayed as revolutionists. In
this case we see Olabisi, Oyah and Dr. Asiatu
standing firm to fight for the freedom of women and
rights of the child of decision making.
Women have also been portrayed as child bearers
and caretakers. Makalay is the mother of Olabisi
who is very strict in ensuring that Olabisi observes
good family standards like avoiding boys until she
gets married. Also Oyah takes good care of Olabisi
as her child although she is not her real biological
A woman is shown as a tool for pleasure by men.
Ade, is using Makalay for pleasure after
impregnating her he goes to Oyah. We are told he
has some more five girlfriends. ”you answered
truthfully. For you have had five girlfriends, and you are
now living with a woman who is not your wife” pg 62.
Olabisi is also used by Eddy for the same reason
since they are not yet married.
A woman is also show a picture of ignorant and
foolish people. They should have been the ones to
oppose FGM but surprisingly enough they are the
ones supporting it. They are also ignorant of the
dangers brought by FGM but they think only of the
benefits ignoring the harmful outcomes.
A woman is portrayed as cruel people who
perpetuate a cruel custom. If we consider how FGM
takes place, we wouldn’t imagine a woman standing
in court to defend it. Oyah asks Makalay “Mrs
Kamara, do you not find it surprising to see a collegeeducated
woman supporting and defending cruelty to
A woman is portrayed as superstitious. The whole
process is carried out on the basis of superstitious
grounds. The belief in bondo gods and spirits. For
example Makalay says “when a circumcised woman
reveals to a gborka the secrets of the gods, something
terrible will happen to her.” Pg 85
Although it takes only a small part but that isn’t a reason
to ignore discussing it. There have been cases of
corruption in the novel. Amadu -The hunter is given a
task by Makalay to look for Olabisi in which case he
would be give a goat if he succeeded to find her.
Unfortunately, she finds her and receives some money
from her and helps her escape. This shows how our
society fails to reach some intended goals because of
individualistic tendencies of few members of the society
who use every opportunity coming their way for private
gain. Olabisi says:
“I ran back and… and bumped into this man, a hunter. He
said if I gave him enough money to buy two goats instead
of one, he would show me the way out of the forest
instead of taking me back to my mother”
14. INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION.
Meaningful education is that which helps to build a
person by helping him/her to change the society by
changing the way he/she thinks. When education fails to
change a person’s mindset and the way he/she looks at
things that education was but a waste of time. In the
book both scenarios have been manifested. Makalay
and Salaam Sesay represent a group of educated
Africans who for them education is just a means to earn
salaries and manage the family budget.
She still upholds the harmful traditions despite the fact
that she learnt in school how harmful FGM is. On the
other hand there are people like Asiatu and Oyah have
used their professionalism to bring about changes in the
society by condemning what is bad. Without fail they
joined hands and fought for- Olabisi until they snatched
her from the bondo ritual. This is the positive effect of
This is the state of being un able to obtain basic needs
or inability of someone to make the basic demands like
food, clothes and shelter. In the novel, Makalay’s kitchen
is made by rusty corrugated iron sheets which could
almost fall by the blow of the wind. This can also be
portrayed when Salay and Rugiatu were working bear
footed from the well.
16. MORAL DECAY
This is the disolation of good moral and people in the
society. In the novel moral decay is shown when Olabisi
involved herself in early sexual relationship while she
just fourteen years of age. Also Olabisi replied back
Makalay her (mother) as it was a peer.
Title, Osman Conteh has made theuse of direct title
as the novel explains about the little girls who go to
the Bondo camp and get circumcised.They shout
because of pain but the cry goes un answered.
Setting, the events have been explained in real
setting because of places like Freetown that real
exists in Sierra Leone.
Plot, the events have been narrated in a straight
forward way (chronological plot).The narration starts
when Olabisi sits on a low stool when she washes
dishes, her steps to join and dance with Bondo
women who go to the camp without herself to know
it, her struggle to get rid of Female Genital Mutilation
(FGM) and her victory in the court.
Diction (Language use) The novelist has made the
use of; vernacular words example “gborka” which
means a woman/ a girl who is not circumcised
“lappa” which means a piece of cloth that is tied
under The armpit as well as “juju” which means
The use or religious words, example subanallah” said
by Makalay to Olabisi, also the words like “pastor”
and “imam” are said by Salaam Sesay to Ade Jones
in the court.
The use of legal language (Language used in court),
there words like
“objection”, “overruled” and “adjourn” are much used
in the court
Figures of speech example simile when Yah Posseh
says, “The Bondo
tradition is as old as Africa”
There is also the use of hyperbole, when the narrator
says that Yah Posseh’s mouth is like the cave -where
bats go to sleep
The use of words that imitate the sound
(Onomatopoeia) , example “BAM” to imitate the
sound of gavel hit by the Judge Lansana Kanu in the
There is actually a lot to learn from the novel.
Parents should be close to their children so as to
make them avoiding bad behavior. Olabisi manages
to fool her father by having sex with Eddy while she
is only fourteen. It can probably be said that Ade
Jones has failed to take full control of his daughter.
Parents should respect children’s right and not
simply press their wills on their children even when
they affect the children.
Some of cultural practices such as Female Genital
Mutilation (FGM), can cause the spread of HIV/AIDS.
The daughter of Dr. Asiatu Koroma (Umu), gets
infected with HIV/AIDS because of being
circumcised. Female Genital Mutilation can also
cause death due to the loss of excessive bleeding; it
can therefore be avoided and omitted.
Family separation is not a good thing as it causes
children to suffer. Olabisi’s parents (Makalay and
Ade Jones) are shown to be separated from each
other. Makalay lives in the village (Bondo Society)
while Ade Jones lives in Freetown. This makes
Olabisi to miss full parental care and faces the
problems of circumcision as she visits her mother.
Female Genital Mutilation is very dangerous because
it places the life of young girls at risk. Olabissi is
shown running alone in the forest something that
may results into danger. Also a little girl is shown
bleeding after being cut her clitoris.
Some of cultural practices like Female Genital
Mutilation (FGM), can cause conflicts in the society.
Olabisi comes into conflict with her mother because
of circumcision; she also fights Salay and Rugiatu
because of it.
The novel is relevant in a number of ways;
FGM is still a common practice among most African
societies. It is practiced in rural communities by
ignorant masses ignoring all the consequences that
come along with FGM.
There are educated people who support outdated
customs like FGM, Superstition etc as did Makalay.
Most girls are forced by their parents to undergo
FGM and when they stand against such practices
nobody listens to them. Their cries go unanswered.
This is common among the Kuryans of Northern
Corruption, ignorance and believing in superstition
are also common phenomena in our country and
Africa in general.
We also have girls who are now aware of the effects
of FGM as a result they are now protesting to
undergo the process.