The contemporary countries of the world are no longer isolated from other on matters which are occurring in the planet earth. They share some socio- cultural values which are good or bad depending on the moral judgment of the given country, but also shares policies, law and regulations.
This interconnectedness have been influenced with an improved science and technology coupled with an improved communication and information technologies such as internet use, television, fax, cellular phones and others.
The technological improvements have eliminated distance, geographical barriers, and socio- cultural barriers, henceforth; the global local interconnectedness has become possible.
MEANING OF GLOBALIZATION
Globalization is an increase of interconnectedness among people in the world that expands and accelerates the movement of people to far distances across borders, including exchange of ideas, culture and commodities over the vast distance
Globalization is the situation whereby the globe has interconnected in term of information and communication technology and hence what is happening in one place is easily recognized in other place, consequently, it is caused the planet earth to look like a small village.
Generally globalization can simply be defined as the process of increasing interconnectedness in policies, ideas and culture between one country and other. This inter connectedness have been enhanced with development of science and technology and so forth.
Historical background of Globalization
The interconnection and contact of the world population can be traced in several centuries in the past. The interconnection was through physical contact among of the world population. There are three phases which made people to come together in historical perspectives as follows.
The first phase was during mercantilism period
This can be traced back between the 11th to 16thcenturies. In this period the merchants who were the Portuguese like Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Fernando Po and Bartolommeo Diaz visited various parts of the world with the sake of trade. These parts included Africa, North and South America, Asia and Caribbean island.
Besides other European merchants participated in this trade by collecting some commodities such as gold, Silver, spices and slaves. These early traders stimulated shifting of Africans as slaves and took them in the new world. Under this system the interconnectedness of people all over the world was possible.
The second phase of integration was during colonialism period
Colonialism came after scramble and ultimately partition of Africa at Berlin in 1884/85 .During this period the whole continent of Africa was divided into sphere of influence (colonies) by imperialist countries .These countries included Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, France, Dutch (Holland) just mention a few .
Thus, all Colonies became connected to the Capitalist system, the policies which were impacted in the metropolitan impacted also in the colonies. The crisis which faced the masters like great depression (1939- 1945) the first world war (1914-1918) and the second world war (1939 – 1945) fought by masters but incorporated their colonies as well. This was also the second phase on which the world integrated.
The third phase has been induced by development of science and technology
This phase started in 1990’s on which the modern science and technology has innovated especially an information technology which include use of e- Mail, Internets, Television set, cell phones and so forth .These have motivated the movement of people globally from one place to another ,facilitated development of trade and great interconnectedness in some globe policies .Besides, refugees migration from African continent to Europe and within Africa continent has magnified in the near past years. These have contributed people all over the world to share some policies, culture, education, Arts, Language and traditions and general understanding.
How globalization has influenced social, political and economic reforms in Tanzania.
As the results of integrated policies many developing countries particularly Tanzania came with some reforms. These reforms were to comply with globalization demands.
The following are some reforms among many
1. Structural Adjustment programs (SAPs). This was introduced by world financial institutions like the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund in 1980 to restructure the economy of third world countries. This was due to the fact that the third world countries inflicted with economic problems like decline of Per-capital Income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
For most of sub-Saharan African countries between 1980 to 1987 the GDP declined by 20% and 4.7% respectively, increase of external debt, impoverishment of health facilities including dispensary and health centers and falling of education standard in all levels of education system. Thus, SAPS came to restructure the economy through improving the provision of social services; Tax reform and elimination of barriers on trade, devaluation of currencies just mention a few.
2. Privatization of public sector. Privatization refers to transferring assets and activities of the public sectors to be run by the private sectors or Individuals. These policy was introduced in 1980 by the world Bank and international monetary fund together with donor countries like France, USA, Denmark and Germany .
The role of privatization policy was to increase efficient of economic sectors and restructure the condition which existed in developing countries .The major goals were to enhance access to foreign markets, Capital and technology through attracting managerial and technological resources from private sector to reduce an overwhelming and challenging increase of public debt and so forth.
3. Economic, social and political liberalization. Many Africa countries and Tanzania in particular liberalized their economic, social and political status of their countries. Economically, the rate of foreign investment, operation of international trade through import and export, could be done through elimination of trade barriers such as tax, tariff and other embargoes. Politically there was introduction of multiparty in many developing countries, the main goals were to improve democracy through institutionalizing democratic principles, but also stimulating people participation in decision making and elimination all forms of dictatorship which existed before .
Apart from introduction of multiparty also some pressure groups and civil societies were to be institutionalized ,these include Civil Based Organization (CBO) and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s).These have been responsible in addressing social problems like abuse of human right, women violence ,sexual abuse and others .It is liberalization which have stimulated developing countries to adopt and assimilate the western polices and integrate them in internal affairs
4. Redundancy. Was also one among of the reform of Globalization .This enforced by the donor countries together with world financial institution .It called upon some developing countries including Tanzania to reduce the number of workers from public offices. This was done to reduce the government spending in 1990’s. It consequently, caused unemployment of many Tanzania henceforth decline of standard of living.
However, many reforms have been done by Tanzania to adjust itself in the wave of globalization. Many impacts have came in because of these reforms including unemployment, introduction of new culture, introduction of western value in our environment, International trade imbalance, new-colonialism and the burden of debt.
Impacts of globalization in Tanzania
Globalization has led to several impacts in Tanzania both positive and negative, the impacts are as follows:-
1. Led utilization of resources through free market economy, liberalization and privatization policies these includes forest, wildlife, minerals, land and generally Tanzanian.
2. It has enhanced employment for the qualified personnel. This is because private institutions encourage an employment for the qualified workers in marketing, finance, human resources, technical matters and health service.
3. Transfer of science and technology through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has become possible. The companies and individuals have allowed investing in various sectors on which they have imported science and technology example use of machines, computer and other devices which have enhanced the utilization of resources.
4. It has ruled out some bad practices (culture) which are condemned by International agencies these include Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), women oppression, witchcraft and violence against women .This is because these practices cannot induces the civilization of the people.
5. Globalization has made diffusion of belief and value about broader issues on international concerns. For example value on environment protection, human nights observance and gender issues have been institutionalized by a country like Tanzania.
6. Globalization swept cultural boundaries through development of information and communication technology like internet, fax machines, satellites and cable television (Digital Television).This has managed to integrate all cultural practices in the world and have cultural vision for the present and future generation.
1. Globalization compelled to unemployment for an unqualified people .This was through redundancy of workers in 1980’s.
2. Stimulates environmental degradation, this has been motivated with various investment done by foreign companies in Industries, mining sector, transport and communication as well as agriculture sector .Foreign Direct investment ( FDI) has caused deforestation, soil erosion and pollutions which subsequently contributes to Global warming and climatic changes in
3. Globalization has induced the distortion of indigenous culture and values .The cultural decay has been experienced in Tanzania such as drug abuse ,gays and lesbian, indecent dressing style, table manner, embracement of western songs, ceremonies like wedding and burial just mention a few.
4. Globalization has motivated over utilization of resources. Through privatization policies and direct foreign Investment have contributed to overuse of mineral potentialities especially Gold and Diamond, besides it has overexploited the Tanzanians who are working in these investments
5. Globalization has induced underdevelopment of economies in the third Word countries particularly Tanzania. This is because promotes elimination of tariffs, tax and embargoes to the imports. it is also discourage the local industries because some imported goods like clothes, electricity device, medicine and others are of great quality compared to goods produced in our local industries, hence leads to underdevelopment of our economies.
6. Globalization spearheads the operation of neo – colonialism, some policies are made by western nations which are to be implemented in LDC’s, these include trade liberalization, devaluation of currencies and privatization just mention a few. These policies intend to benefit the donor countries, World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) but not the Developing countries (nations).
Thus, globalization has caused many impacts in Tanzania both positive and negative. Due to these impacts some policies to adopt, assimilate, manage and diffuse some of these effects should be put in place. For the positive ones should be used effectively for development of Tanzania and for the negative ones should be cross checked to avoid titanic disruption of Tanzania economy in the future.
Challenges of Globalization in Tanzania
The challenges of Globalization in Tanzania are many, but, this is due to the fact that Tanzania’s economy is infant coupled with devastating poverty as well as inefficient science and technology. Thus, it becomes difficult for Tanzania to cope with Globalization’s needs.
The national plan for implementation status of Brussels plan action identified the following challenges.
1. Inadequate financing in order to build productive capacities and thus to make globalization work or productive.
2. Lack of competitiveness, innovativeness, adherence to schedule and standard confidence to venture into neighboring countries’ market and overseas by Tanzania traders and other LDC’S is the challenge
3. Low accessibility to Information Communication Technology (ICT) due to low literacy rate, low income and limited number of services provider .Example, few Tanzania have accessibility to electronic mail, Internet, and cellular phones because of illiteracy and low income.
4. Low capacity of negotiation in international markets by Tanzanian due to lack of institutions for standardization and certification of commodities produced and exported by Tanzania.
5. Many African countries and particularly Tanzania, faces with problem of low saving and investment growth. Low saving and investments is common feature for some sub-Saharan countries. Without saving, affective individual capacity of banking investment will need to be decided by foreigners who prolong the problem of financial constraints.
6. Another challenge is that domestic revenue mobilization is still substantially low, relative to huge expenditure needs due to widespread of poverty .Thus, the government is challenged to create policies on how to expand the tax by capturing activities carried out in informal sectors which were promoted by globalization policies.
7. Poor Government policies incorporated with corruption also hinders smooth operation of International trade, movement of good, capital and people. Poor policies encourages unnecessary bureaucracy which stimulates some loopholes of corruption
Measures for the challenges of Globalization in Tanzania
1. Low productive capacities in the LDC’s as well as Tanzania will be lessened by provision of transport and communication services, Liberalization of business through motivating private investment and trade.
2. Building human and institution capacities through educating the citizens in order to cope with globalization needs.
3. Enhance the role of Trade in Development through introduction of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s), Development policies, and integrated industrial development programs.
4. Mobilization of financial resources through proper tax administration and persuasion on trade liberalization.
5. Develop training and research in agriculture through introduction of science and technology for quality and quantity of agricultural products. This will enhance the operation of International trade and independent economy of Tanzania as a whole.
6. The world financial institutions like the World Bank and International monetary fund (IMF) and other donors should help the poor countries by providing them with some loans, grants and aid with minimum or no conditions. This is due to the fact that the donors and some World financial institutions have been giving some aid, grant and loans at very difficult conditionality.
7. Countries in LDC is particularly Tanzania should create own strategies policies and philosophies for own development and cope with challenges of Globalization not depending on policies and strategies made by western countries.
1. International affairs deals with International matters .Identify them.
2. What are merits of International policy
3. What are demerits of multilateral organizations?
4. Write short notes on these concepts
- Neo colonialism
- Foreign Direct Investments FDI
- Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP)
- World peace and understanding
- Principles of SADC.
5. Why problems of African Regional cooperation have homogeneous problems.
6. What are rationales of African regional cooperation?
7. (.a) what is Tanzania Foreign policy?
(b) Identify some principles of Tanzania foreign policy
8. Differentiate between bilateral and multilateral cooperation
9. What benefit can be derived by Tanzania as the result being in Multilateral cooperation
10. Write short notes on these concepts.
(a) International affairs.
(c) World big power
11. The problems inflicting the Africa regional grouping are seemingly same, support this statement with examples
12. Discuss the role of big power in maintaining world peace and understanding.
13. What are functions of NAM after liquidation of USSR and USA cold war?
14. How can challenges of globalization be addressed in Tanzania.
15. Give some salient features of Globalization
16. Culture distortion cannot be dichotomized with influences of Globalization .Discuss.
17. Account for Global Terrorism and suggest some remedies.
18. How can you assess the consequences of Globalization in LDC’s particularly Tanzania?
19. What are reforms in social, political and economic as the result Globalization?
20. Why technological backwardness and divestiture poverty leads to poor progress of our regional groupings.
21. With examples show the incidences of terrorism in the would
22. Identify the principles of UN.
23. Assets the effectiveness of strategies for conflict resolutions in Africa.
24. What are precipitates for conflict in Africa?
25. One of the setbacks of regional groupings is the problem of multi-membership. Critically discuss
26. In what circumstances the objectives of AU drift from that of OAU.